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Switch from jtidy to jsoup. Man, jsoup is the perfect HTML API. So much simpler/cleaner. I love it when people other than Oracle make Java APIs. Will Haldean Brown 8 years ago
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3 <title></title>
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5 <body>
6 <table style="border-spacing:3px;width:22em;" cellspacing="3" class="infobox">
7 <tr>
8 <th style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Grunge</th>
9 </tr>
10 <tr>
11 <th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Stylistic origins</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Alternative rock" href="//">Alternative rock</a>, <a title="Hardcore punk" href="//">hardcore punk</a>, <a title="Heavy metal music" href="//">heavy metal</a>, <a title="Punk rock" href="//">punk rock</a>, <a title="Hard rock" href="//">hard rock</a>, <a title="Noise rock" href="//">noise rock</a></td>
12 </tr>
13 <tr>
14 <th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Cultural origins</th><td class="hlist">Mid-1980s, <a class="mw-redirect" title="Seattle, Washington" href="//,_Washington">Seattle, Washington</a>, <a title="United States" href="//">United States</a></td>
15 </tr>
16 <tr>
17 <th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Typical instruments</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Electric guitar" href="//">Electric guitar</a>, <a title="Bass guitar" href="//">bass guitar</a>, <a title="Drum kit" href="//">drums</a>, <a title="Singing" href="//">vocals</a></td>
18 </tr>
19 <tr>
20 <th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Derivative forms</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Post-grunge" href="//">Post-grunge</a></td>
21 </tr>
22 <tr>
23 <th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Fusion genres</th>
24 </tr>
25 <tr>
26 <td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Nu metal" href="//">Nu metal</a></td>
27 </tr>
28 <tr>
29 <th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Regional scenes</th>
30 </tr>
31 <tr>
32 <td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Music of Washington (state)" href="//">Washington state</a></td>
33 </tr>
34 <tr>
35 <th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Other topics</th>
36 </tr>
37 <tr>
38 <td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Timeline of alternative rock" href="//">Timeline of alternative rock</a> - <a title="Generation X" href="//">Generation X</a> - <a title="Grunge speak" href="//">Grunge speak hoax</a></td>
39 </tr>
40 </table>
41 <p>
42 <b>Grunge</b> (sometimes referred to as the <b>Seattle sound</b>) is a subgenre of <a title="Alternative rock" href="//">alternative rock</a> that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American state of <a class="mw-redirect" title="Washington (U.S. state)" href="//">Washington</a>, particularly in the <a title="Seattle" href="//">Seattle</a> area. The early Grunge movement revolved around Seattle's <a title="Independent record label" href="//">independent record label</a> <i><a title="Sub Pop" href="//">Sub Pop</a></i>, but by the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with Grunge acts in California and other parts of the U.S. building strong followings and signing major record deals.</p>
43 <p>Inspired by <a title="Hardcore punk" href="//">hardcore punk</a> and <a title="Heavy metal music" href="//">heavy metal</a>, grunge is generally characterized by heavily <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//">distorted</a> <a title="Electric guitar" href="//">electric guitars</a>, contrasting song <a title="Dynamics (music)" href="//">dynamics</a>, "<a title="Growling" href="//">growling</a>" vocals and apathetic or <a title="Angst" href="//">angst</a>-filled lyrics. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down compared with other forms of <a title="Rock music" href="//">rock music</a>, and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics.</p>
44 <p>Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s, due mainly to the release of <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//">Nirvana</a>'s <i><a title="Nevermind" href="//">Nevermind</a></i>, <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//">Pearl Jam</a>'s <i><a title="Ten (Pearl Jam album)" href="//">Ten</a></i>, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a>'s <i><a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//">Badmotorfinger</a></i>, <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//">Alice in Chains</a>' <i><a title="Dirt (Alice in Chains album)" href="//">Dirt</a></i>, and <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//">Stone Temple Pilots</a>' <i><a title="Core (Stone Temple Pilots album)" href="//">Core</a></i>. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of <a title="Hard rock" href="//">hard rock</a> music at the time. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, their influence continues to affect modern rock music.</p>
45 <p>Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion, <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//">fuzz</a> and <a title="Audio feedback" href="//">feedback</a> effects. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. However, it also involves much slower <a title="Tempo" href="//">tempos</a>, <a title="Consonance and dissonance" href="//">dissonant</a> harmonies, and more complex instrumentation&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;which is reminiscent of heavy metal. Lyrics are typically angst-filled, often addressing themes such as <a title="Social alienation" href="//">social alienation</a>, <a title="Apathy" href="//">apathy</a>, confinement, and a desire for <a title="Liberty" href="//">freedom</a>.</p>
46 <p>Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical <a title="Mainstream" href="//">mainstream</a> in the late 1980s. <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a> was the first grunge band to sign to a major label when they joined the roster of <a title="A&amp;M Records" href="//">A&amp;M Records</a> in 1989. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Nirvana's <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//">Kurt Cobain</a>, labeled by <i>Time</i> as "the <a title="John Lennon" href="//">John Lennon</a> of the swinging Northwest", appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin before he committed suicide at the age of 27 in 1994.</p>
47 <div class="toc" id="toc">
48 <div id="toctitle">
49 <h2>Contents</h2>
50 </div>
51 <ul>
52 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1">
53 <a href="#Origin_of_the_term"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Origin of the term</span></a>
54 </li>
55 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2">
56 <a href="#Characteristics"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Characteristics</span></a>
57 </li>
58 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3">
59 <a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
60 <ul>
61 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4">
62 <a href="#Roots_and_influences"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Roots and influences</span></a>
63 </li>
64 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5">
65 <a href="#Early_development"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Early development</span></a>
66 </li>
67 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6">
68 <a href="#Mainstream_success"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Mainstream success</span></a>
69 </li>
70 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7">
71 <a href="#Decline_of_mainstream_popularity"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Decline of mainstream popularity</span></a>
72 </li>
73 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8">
74 <a href="#21st_century"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">21st century</span></a>
75 </li>
76 </ul>
77 </li>
78 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9">
79 <a href="#Prominent_music_acts"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Prominent music acts</span></a>
80 </li>
81 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10">
82 <a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a>
83 </li>
84 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11">
85 <a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a>
86 <ul>
87 <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12">
88 <a href="#Bibliography"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Bibliography</span></a>
89 </li>
90 </ul>
91 </li>
92 <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13">
93 <a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
94 </li>
95 </ul>
96 </div>
97 <h2>
98 <span id="Origin_of_the_term" class="mw-headline">Origin of the term</span>
99 </h2>
100 <p>Although writer Paul Ramball used "grunge" in a 1978 <i><a title="NME" href="//">NME</a></i> article to describe mainstream guitar rock, <a title="Mark Arm" href="//">Mark Arm</a>, the vocalist for the Seattle band <a title="Green River (band)" href="//">Green River</a>&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;and later <a title="Mudhoney" href="//">Mudhoney</a>&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;is generally credited as being the first to use the term <i>grunge</i> to describe this genre of music. Arm first used the term .in 1981, when he wrote a letter under his given name Mark McLaughlin to the Seattle <a title="Zine" href="//">zine</a> <i>Desperate Times</i>, criticizing his band <i>Mr. Epp and the Calculations</i> as "Pure grunge! Pure noise! Pure shit!". Clark Humphrey, editor of <i>Desperate Times</i>, cites this as the earliest use of the term to refer to a Seattle band, and mentions that <a title="Bruce Pavitt" href="//">Bruce Pavitt</a> of Sub Pop popularized the term as a musical label in 1987&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;88, using it on several occasions to describe Green River.</p>
101 <p>Arm said years later, "Obviously, I didn't make grunge up. I got it from someone else. The term was already being thrown around in <a title="Australia" href="//">Australia</a> in the mid-'80s to describe bands like <a title="King Snake Roost" href="//">King Snake Roost</a>, <a title="The Scientists" href="//">The Scientists</a>, <a title="Salamander Jim (page does not exist)" class="new" href="//;action=edit&amp;redlink=1">Salamander Jim</a>, and <a title="Beasts of Bourbon" href="//">Beasts of Bourbon</a>." Arm used grunge as a descriptive term rather than a genre term, but it eventually came to describe the punk/metal hybrid sound of the Seattle music scene.</p>
102 <h2>
103 <span id="Characteristics" class="mw-headline">Characteristics</span>
104 </h2>
105 <p>Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion, <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//">fuzz</a>, and <a title="Audio feedback" href="//">feedback</a> effects. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. However, it also involves much slower <a title="Tempo" href="//">tempos</a>, <a title="Consonance and dissonance" href="//">dissonant</a> harmonies, and more complex instrumentation&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;which is reminiscent of heavy metal. Some individuals associated with the development of grunge, including Sub Pop producer <a title="Jack Endino" href="//">Jack Endino</a> and the <a title="Melvins" href="//">Melvins</a>, explained grunge's incorporation of heavy rock influences such as <a title="Kiss (band)" href="//">Kiss</a> as "musical provocation". Grunge artists considered these bands "cheesy" but nonetheless enjoyed them; <a title="Buzz Osborne" href="//">Buzz Osborne</a> of the Melvins described it as an attempt to see what ridiculous things bands could do and get away with. In the early 1990s, Nirvana's signature "stop-start" song format became a genre convention. Allmusic calls grunge a "hybrid of heavy metal and punk". Although keyboards are generally not used in grunge, Seattle band Gorrilla created controversy by breaking the "guitars only" approach and using a 1960s-style <a title="Vox (musical equipment)" href="//">Vox organ</a> in their group.</p>
106 <p>Lyrics are typically angst-filled, often addressing themes such as <a title="Social alienation" href="//">social alienation</a>, apathy, confinement, and a desire for freedom. A number of factors influenced the focus on such subject matter. Many grunge musicians displayed a general disenchantment with the state of society, as well as a discomfort with social prejudices. Such themes bear similarities to those addressed by punk rock musicians. Music critic <a title="Simon Reynolds" href="//">Simon Reynolds</a> said in 1992 that "there's a feeling of burnout in the culture at large. Kids are depressed about the future". Humor in grunge often <a title="Parody" href="//">satirized</a> glam metal&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;for example, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a>'s "<a class="mw-redirect" title="Big Dumb Sex" href="//">Big Dumb Sex</a>"&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;and other forms of popular rock music during the 1980s.</p>
107 <p>Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy performances. Grunge bands rejected the complex and high budget presentations of many musical genres, including the use of complex light arrays, pyrotechnics, and other visual effects unrelated to playing the music. Stage acting was generally avoided. Instead the bands presented themselves as no different from minor local bands. Jack Endino said in the 1996 documentary <i>Hype!</i> that Seattle bands were inconsistent live performers, since their primary objective was not to be entertainers, but simply to "rock out".</p>
108 <p>Clothing commonly worn by grunge musicians in Washington consisted of <a title="Charity shop" href="//">thrift store</a> items and the typical outdoor clothing (most notably <a title="Flannel" href="//">flannel</a> shirts) of the region, as well as a generally unkempt appearance. The style did not evolve out of a conscious attempt to create an appealing fashion; music journalist <a title="Charles R. Cross" href="//">Charles R. Cross</a> said, "[Nirvana frontman] <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//">Kurt Cobain</a> was just too lazy to shampoo", and Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman said, "This [clothing] is cheap, it's durable, and it's kind of timeless. It also runs against the grain of the whole flashy aesthetic that existed in the 80s."</p>
109 <p>One of the philosophies of the grunge scene was authenticity. <a title="Dave Rimmer" href="//">Dave Rimmer</a> writes that with the revival of punk ideals of stripped-down music in the early 1990s, with "Cobain, and lots of kids like him, rock &amp; roll...threw down a dare: Can you be pure enough, day after day, year after year, to prove your <a title="Authenticity (philosophy)" href="//">authenticity</a>, to live up to the music ... And if you can't, can you live with being a <a title="Poseur" href="//">poseur</a>, a phony, a <a class="mw-redirect" title="Sellout" href="//">sellout</a>?"</p>
110 <h2>
111 <span id="History" class="mw-headline">History</span>
112 </h2>
113 <h3>
114 <span id="Roots_and_influences" class="mw-headline">Roots and influences</span>
115 </h3>
116 <p>Grunge's sound partly results from <a class="mw-redirect" title="Seattle music scene" href="//">Seattle's isolation</a> from other music scenes. As Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman noted, "Seattle was a perfect example of a secondary city with an active music scene that was completely ignored by an American media fixated on Los Angeles and New York." Mark Arm claimed that the isolation meant, "this one corner of the map was being really inbred and ripping off each other's ideas". Grunge evolved from the local punk rock scene, and was inspired by bands such as <a title="The Fartz" href="//">The Fartz</a>, <a title="The U-Men" href="//">The U-Men</a>, <a title="10 Minute Warning" href="//">10 Minute Warning</a>, <a title="The Acc&Atilde;&frac14;sed" href="//">The Acc&Atilde;&frac14;sed</a>, and the <a title="Fastbacks" href="//">Fastbacks</a>. Additionally, the slow, heavy, and sludgy style of the <a title="Melvins" href="//">Melvins</a> was a significant influence on the grunge sound.</p>
117 <p>Outside the Pacific Northwest, a number of artists and music scenes influenced grunge. Alternative rock bands from the Northeastern United States, including <a title="Sonic Youth" href="//">Sonic Youth</a>, <a title="Pixies" href="//">Pixies</a>, and <a title="Dinosaur Jr." href="//">Dinosaur Jr.</a>, are important influences on the genre. Through their patronage of Seattle bands, Sonic Youth "inadvertently nurtured" the grunge scene, and reinforced the fiercely independent attitudes of its musicians. The influence of Pixies on Nirvana was noted by <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//">Kurt Cobain</a>, who commented in a <i>Rolling Stone</i> interview, "I connected with that band so heavily that I should have been in that band&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;or at least a Pixies cover band. We used their sense of dynamics, being soft and quiet and then loud and hard." On August 1997, in an interview with <i><a title="Guitar World" href="//">Guitar World</a></i>, <a title="Dave Grohl" href="//">Dave Grohl</a> said: "From Kurt, <a title="Krist Novoselic" href="//">Krist</a> and I liking <a title="The Knack" href="//">the Knack</a>, <a title="Bay City Rollers" href="//">Bay City Rollers</a>, <a title="The Beatles" href="//">Beatles</a> and <a title="ABBA" href="//">Abba</a> just as much as we liked <a title="Flipper (band)" href="//">Flipper</a> and <a title="Black Flag (band)" href="//">Black Flag</a>...You listen to any Pixies record and it's all over there. Or even <a title="Black Sabbath" href="//">Black Sabbath</a>'s "<a title="War Pigs" href="//">War Pigs</a>"-it's there: the power of the dynamic. We just sort of abused it with <a title="Pop rock" href="//">pop songs</a> and got sick with it."</p>
118 <div style="width: 399px;" class="thumb tright">
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121 <div class="thumbimage">
122 <a class="image" href="//"></a>
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130 <div style="clear: left; text-align: left; background: transparent" class="thumbcaption">Seattle punk/metal band <a title="The U-Men" href="//">The U-Men</a> performing in Seattle.</div>
131 </div>
132 </div>
133 <p>Aside from the genre's punk and alternative rock roots, many grunge bands were equally influenced by heavy metal of the early 1970s. <a title="Clinton Heylin" href="//">Clinton Heylin</a>, author of <i>Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge</i>, cited Black Sabbath as "perhaps the most ubiquitous pre-punk influence on the northwest scene". Black Sabbath played a role in shaping the grunge sound, through their own records and the records they inspired. Musicologist <a title="Bob Gulla" href="//">Bob Gulla</a> asserted that Black Sabbath's sound "shows up in virtually all of grunge's most popular bands, including <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//">Nirvana</a>, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a>, and <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//">Alice in Chains</a>". The influence of <a title="Led Zeppelin" href="//">Led Zeppelin</a> is also evident, particularly in the work of Soundgarden, whom <i>Q</i> magazine noted were "in thrall to '70s rock, but contemptuous of the genre's overt sexism and machismo". Jon Wiederhorn of <i>Guitar World</i> wrote: "So what exactly is grunge?...Picture a supergroup made up of <a title="Creedence Clearwater Revival" href="//">Creedence Clearwater Revival</a>, Black Sabbath and <a title="The Stooges" href="//">the Stooges</a>, and you're pretty close."</p>
134 <p>The Los Angeles hardcore punk band Black Flag's 1984 record <i><a title="My War" href="//">My War</a></i>, on which the band combined heavy metal with their traditional sound, made a strong impact in Seattle. Mudhoney's <a title="Steve Turner (guitarist)" href="//">Steve Turner</a> commented, "A lot of other people around the country hated the fact that Black Flag slowed down...but up here it was really great...we were like 'Yay!' They were weird and fucked-up sounding." Turner explained grunge's integration of metal influences, noting, "Hard rock and metal was never that much of an enemy of punk like it was for other scenes. Here, it was like, 'There's only twenty people here, you can't really find a group to hate.'" Bands began to mix metal and punk in the Seattle music scene around 1984, with much of the credit for this fusion going to <a title="The U-Men" href="//">The U-Men</a>.</p>
135 <p>The raw, distorted and feedback-intensive sound of some <a title="Noise rock" href="//">noise rock</a> bands had an influence on grunge. Among them are Wisconsin's <a title="Killdozer (band)" href="//">Killdozer</a>, and most notably <a title="San Francisco" href="//">San Francisco</a>'s Flipper, a band known for its slowed-down and murky "noise punk". The <a title="Butthole Surfers" href="//">Butthole Surfers</a>' mix of punk, heavy metal and noise rock was a major influence, particularly on the early work of Soundgarden.</p>
136 <p>After <a title="Neil Young" href="//">Neil Young</a> played a few concerts with Pearl Jam and recorded the album <i><a title="Mirror Ball (Neil Young album)" href="//">Mirror Ball</a></i> with them, some members of the media gave Young the title "Godfather of Grunge". This was grounded on his work with his band <a title="Crazy Horse (band)" href="//">Crazy Horse</a> and his regular use of distorted guitar, most notably on the album <i><a title="Rust Never Sleeps" href="//">Rust Never Sleeps</a></i>. A similarly influential yet often overlooked album is <i><a title="Neurotica" href="//">Neurotica</a></i> by <a title="Redd Kross" href="//">Redd Kross</a>, about which the co-founder of Sub Pop said, "<i>Neurotica</i> was a life changer for me and for a lot of people in the Seattle music community."</p>
137 <h3>
138 <span id="Early_development" class="mw-headline">Early development</span>
139 </h3>
140 <p>A seminal release in the development of grunge was the <i><a title="Deep Six (album)" href="//">Deep Six</a></i> compilation, released by <a title="C/Z Records" href="//">C/Z Records</a> in 1986. The record featured multiple tracks by six bands: Green River, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a>, Melvins, <a title="Malfunkshun" href="//">Malfunkshun</a>, <a title="Skin Yard" href="//">Skin Yard</a>, and The U-Men. For many of them it was their first appearance on record. The artists had "a mostly heavy, aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore". As Jack Endino recalled, "People just said, 'Well, what kind of music is this? This isn't metal, it's not punk, What is it?' [...] People went 'Eureka! These bands all have something in common.'"</p>
141 <p>Later that year <a title="Bruce Pavitt" href="//">Bruce Pavitt</a> released the <i><a title="Sub Pop 100" href="//">Sub Pop 100</a></i> compilation and Green River's <i><a title="Dry As a Bone" href="//">Dry As a Bone</a></i> EP as part of his new label, Sub Pop. An early Sub Pop catalog described the Green River EP as "ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation". Sub Pop's Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman, inspired by other regional music scenes in music history, worked to ensure that their label projected a "<a title="Music of Seattle" href="//">Seattle sound</a>", reinforced by a similar style of production and album packaging. While music writer <a title="Michael Azerrad" href="//">Michael Azerrad</a> acknowledged that early grunge bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Tad had disparate sounds, he noted "to the objective observer, there were some distinct similarities."</p>
142 <p>Early grunge concerts were sparsely attended (many by fewer than a dozen people) but Sub Pop photographer <a title="Charles Peterson (photographer)" href="//">Charles Peterson</a>'s pictures helped create the impression that such concerts were major events. Mudhoney, which was formed by former members of Green River, served as the flagship band of Sub Pop during their entire time with the label and spearheaded the Seattle grunge movement. Other record labels in the Pacific Northwest that helped promote grunge included C/Z Records, <a title="Estrus Records" href="//">Estrus Records</a>, EMpTy Records and <a title="PopLlama Records" href="//">PopLlama Records</a>.</p>
143 <p>Grunge attracted media attention in the United Kingdom after Pavitt and Poneman asked journalist <a title="Everett True" href="//">Everett True</a> from the British magazine <i><a title="Melody Maker" href="//">Melody Maker</a></i> to write an article on the local music scene. This exposure helped to make grunge known outside of the local area during the late 1980s and drew more people to local shows. The appeal of grunge to the music press was that it "promised the return to a notion of a regional, authorial vision for <a title="American rock" href="//">American rock</a>". Grunge's popularity in the <a title="Underground music" href="//">underground music</a> scene was such that bands began to move to Seattle and approximate the look and sound of the original grunge bands. Mudhoney's Steve Turner said, "It was really bad. Pretend bands were popping up here, things weren't coming from where we were coming from." As a reaction, many grunge bands diversified their sound, with Nirvana and Tad in particular creating more melodic songs. Dawn Anderson of the Seattle fanzine Backlash recalled that by 1990 many locals had tired of the hype surrounding the Seattle scene and hoped that media exposure had dissipated.</p>
144 <h3>
145 <span id="Mainstream_success" class="mw-headline">Mainstream success</span>
146 </h3>
147 <div class="thumb tright">
148 <div style="width:252px;" class="thumbinner">
149 <a class="image" href="//"><img data-file-height="346" data-file-width="367" srcset="// 1.5x, // 2x" class="thumbimage" height="236" width="250" src="//" alt=""></a>
150 <div class="thumbcaption">
151 <div class="magnify">
152 <a title="Enlarge" class="internal" href="//"><img alt="" height="11" width="15" src="//"></a>
153 </div>
154 <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//">Nirvana</a> performing at the 1992 <a class="mw-redirect" title="MTV Video Music Awards" href="//">MTV Video Music Awards</a>.</div>
155 </div>
156 </div>
157 <p>Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical mainstream in the late 1980s. Soundgarden was the first grunge band to sign to a major label when they joined the roster of <a title="A&amp;M Records" href="//">A&amp;M Records</a> in 1989. Soundgarden, along with other major label signings <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//">Alice in Chains</a> and <a title="Screaming Trees" href="//">Screaming Trees</a>, performed "okay" with their initial major label releases, according to Jack Endino. <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//">Nirvana</a>, originally from <a title="Aberdeen, Washington" href="//,_Washington">Aberdeen, Washington</a>, was also courted by major labels, finally signing with <a title="Geffen Records" href="//">Geffen Records</a> in 1990. In September 1991, the band released its major label debut, <i><a title="Nevermind" href="//">Nevermind</a></i>. The album was at best hoped to be a minor success on par with Sonic Youth's <i><a title="Goo (album)" href="//">Goo</a></i>, which Geffen had released a year earlier. It was the release of the album's first single "<a title="Smells Like Teen Spirit" href="//">Smells Like Teen Spirit</a>" that "marked the instigation of the grunge music phenomenon". Due to constant airplay of the song's music video on <a title="MTV" href="//">MTV</a>, <i>Nevermind</i> was selling 400,000 copies a week by Christmas 1991. In January 1992, <i>Nevermind</i> replaced <a title="Pop music" href="//">pop</a> superstar <a title="Michael Jackson" href="//">Michael Jackson</a>'s <i><a title="Dangerous (Michael Jackson album)" href="//">Dangerous</a></i> at number one on the <a title="Billboard 200" href="//"><i>Billboard</i> 200</a>.</p>
158 <p>The success of <i>Nevermind</i> surprised the music industry. <i>Nevermind</i> not only popularized grunge, but also established "the cultural and commercial viability of alternative rock in general." Michael Azerrad asserted that <i>Nevermind</i> symbolized "a sea-change in rock music" in which the <a title="Glam metal" href="//">glam metal</a> that had dominated rock music at that time fell out of favor in the face of music that was perceived as authentic and culturally relevant. Grunge made it possible for genres thought to be of a niche audience, no matter how radical, to prove their marketability and be co-opted by the mainstream, cementing the formation of an individualist, fragmented culture. Other grunge bands subsequently replicated Nirvana's success. <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//">Pearl Jam</a>, which featured former <a title="Mother Love Bone" href="//">Mother Love Bone</a> members <a title="Jeff Ament" href="//">Jeff Ament</a> and <a title="Stone Gossard" href="//">Stone Gossard</a>, had released its debut album <i><a title="Ten (Pearl Jam album)" href="//">Ten</a></i> in August 1991, a month before <i>Nevermind</i>, but album sales only picked up a year later. By the second half of 1992 <i>Ten</i> had become a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the <i>Billboard</i> charts.</p>
159 <p>Soundgarden's album <i><a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//">Badmotorfinger</a></i> and Alice in Chains' <i><a title="Dirt (Alice in Chains album)" href="//">Dirt</a></i>, along with the <i><a title="Temple of the Dog" href="//">Temple of the Dog</a></i> album collaboration featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, were also among the 100 top selling albums of 1992. The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted <i>Rolling Stone</i> to nickname Seattle "the new <a title="Liverpool" href="//">Liverpool</a>". Major record labels signed most of the prominent grunge bands in Seattle, while a second influx of bands moved to the city in hopes of success. The grunge scene was the backdrop in the 1992 <a title="Cameron Crowe" href="//">Cameron Crowe</a> film <i><a title="Singles (1992 film)" href="//">Singles</a></i>. There were several small roles, performances, and cameos in the film by popular Seattle grunge bands including Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and Alice in Chains. Filmed in and around Seattle in 1991, the film was not released until 1992 during the height of grunge popularity.</p>
160 <p>The popularity of grunge resulted in a large interest in the Seattle music scene's perceived cultural traits. While the Seattle music scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s in actuality consisted of various styles and genres of music, its representation in the media "served to depict Seattle as a music 'community' in which the focus was upon the ongoing exploration of one musical idiom, namely grunge". The fashion industry marketed "grunge fashion" to consumers, charging premium prices for items such as knit ski hats. Critics asserted that advertising was co-opting elements of grunge and turning it into a fad. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//">Entertainment Weekly</a></i> commented in a 1993 article, "There hasn't been this kind of exploitation of a subculture since the media discovered hippies in the '60s". The <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//">New York Times</a></i> compared the "grunging of America" to the mass-marketing of <a title="Punk rock" href="//">punk rock</a>, <a title="Disco" href="//">disco</a>, and <a title="Hip hop music" href="//">hip hop</a> in previous years. Ironically the <i>New York Times</i> was tricked into printing a fake list of slang terms that were supposedly used in the grunge scene; often referred to as the <a title="Grunge speak" href="//">grunge speak</a> hoax. This media hype surrounding grunge was documented in the 1996 documentary <i><a title="Hype!" href="//!">Hype!</a></i>
161 </p>
162 <p>A backlash against grunge began to develop in Seattle; in late 1992 Jonathan Poneman said that in the city, "All things grunge are treated with the utmost cynicism and amusement [. . .] Because the whole thing is a fabricated movement and always has been." Many grunge artists were uncomfortable with their success and the resulting attention it brought. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain told Michael Azerrad, "Famous is the last thing I wanted to be." Pearl Jam also felt the burden of success, with much of the attention falling on frontman <a title="Eddie Vedder" href="//">Eddie Vedder</a>.</p>
163 <p>Nirvana's follow-up album <i><a title="In Utero (album)" href="//">In Utero</a></i> (1993) was an intentionally abrasive album that Nirvana bassist <a title="Krist Novoselic" href="//">Krist Novoselic</a> described as a "wild aggressive sound, a true alternative record" Nevertheless, upon its release in September 1993 <i>In Utero</i> topped the <i>Billboard</i> charts. Pearl Jam also continued to perform well commercially with its second album, <i><a title="Vs. (Pearl Jam album)" href="//">Vs.</a></i> (1993). The album sold a record 950,378 copies in its first week of release, topped the <i>Billboard</i> charts, and outperformed all other entries in the top ten that week combined.</p>
164 <p>During this period, acts with a "Grunge sound" that were not from Seattle were often panned by critics, who accused them of being copycat bands. <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//">Stone Temple Pilots</a> in particular fell victim to this. In a January 1994 <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//">Rolling Stone</a></i> poll, <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//">Stone Temple Pilots</a> was simultaneously voted Best New Band by <i>Rolling Stone</i>'s readers and Worst New Band by the magazine's music critics, highlighting the disparity between critics and fans.</p>
165 <h3>
166 <span id="Decline_of_mainstream_popularity" class="mw-headline">Decline of mainstream popularity</span>
167 </h3>
168 <p>A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the latter half of the 1990s, grunge was supplanted by <a title="Post-grunge" href="//">post-grunge</a>, which remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century. Post-grunge bands such as <a title="Candlebox" href="//">Candlebox</a> and <a title="Bush (band)" href="//">Bush</a> emerged soon after grunge's breakthrough. These artists lacked the underground roots of grunge and were largely influenced by what grunge had become, namely "a wildly popular form of inward-looking, serious-minded hard rock". Post-grunge was a more commercially viable genre that tempered the distorted guitars of grunge with polished, radio-ready production.</p>
169 <p>Conversely, another alternative rock genre, <a title="Britpop" href="//">Britpop</a>, emerged in part as a reaction against the dominance of grunge in the United Kingdom. In contrast to the dourness of grunge, Britpop was defined by "youthful exuberance and desire for recognition". Britpop artists were vocal about their disdain for grunge. In a 1993 <i><a title="NME" href="//">NME</a></i> interview, <a title="Damon Albarn" href="//">Damon Albarn</a> of Britpop band <a title="Blur (band)" href="//">Blur</a> agreed with interviewer <a title="John Harris (critic)" href="//">John Harris</a>' assertion that Blur was an "anti-grunge band", and said, "Well, that's good. If punk was about getting rid of hippies, then I'm getting rid of grunge". <a title="Noel Gallagher" href="//">Noel Gallagher</a> of <a title="Oasis (band)" href="//">Oasis</a>, while a fan of Nirvana, wrote music that refuted the pessimistic nature of grunge. Gallagher noted in 2006 that the 1994 Oasis single "<a title="Live Forever" href="//">Live Forever</a>" "was written in the middle of grunge and all that, and I remember Nirvana had a tune called 'I Hate Myself and I Want to Die,' and I was like...'Well, I'm not fucking having that.' As much as I fucking like him [Cobain] and all that shit, I'm not having that. I can't have people like that coming over here, on <a title="Heroin" href="//">smack</a>, fucking saying that they hate themselves and they wanna die. That's fucking rubbish."</p>
170 <div class="thumb tright">
171 <div style="width:252px;" class="thumbinner">
172 <a class="image" href="//"></a>
173 <div class="thumbcaption">
174 <div class="magnify">
175 <a title="Enlarge" class="internal" href="//"></a>
176 </div>
177 <a title="Soundgarden" href="//">Soundgarden</a> <a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//">Badmotorfinger</a> logo in concert, 2011.</div>
178 </div>
179 </div>
180 <p>During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Kurt Cobain, labeled by <i>Time</i> as "the <a title="John Lennon" href="//">John Lennon</a> of the swinging Northwest", appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin. Rumors surfaced in early 1994 that Cobain suffered a drug overdose and that Nirvana was breaking up. On April 8, 1994, Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home from an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound; Nirvana summarily disbanded. That same year Pearl Jam canceled its summer tour in protest of what it regarded as ticket vendor <a title="Ticketmaster" href="//">Ticketmaster</a>'s unfair business practices. Pearl Jam then began a boycott of the company; however, Pearl Jam's initiative to play only at non-Ticketmaster venues effectively, with a few exceptions, prevented the band from playing shows in the United States for the next three years. In 1996 Alice in Chains gave their final performances with their ailing estranged lead singer, <a title="Layne Staley" href="//">Layne Staley</a>, who subsequently died from an overdose of cocaine and heroin in 2002. That same year Soundgarden and Screaming Trees released their final studio albums of the 1990s, <i><a title="Down on the Upside" href="//">Down on the Upside</a></i> and <i><a title="Dust (Screaming Trees album)" href="//">Dust</a></i>, respectively.</p>
181 <h3>
182 <span id="21st_century" class="mw-headline">21st century</span>
183 </h3>
184 <p>Some grunge bands have continued recording and touring with success, including, most significantly, <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//">Pearl Jam</a>. While in 2006 <i>Rolling Stone</i> writer Brian Hiatt described Pearl Jam as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame", he noted the band developed a loyal concert following akin to that of the <a title="Grateful Dead" href="//">Grateful Dead</a>. Despite Nirvana's demise, the band has continued to be successful posthumously. Due to the high sales for Kurt Cobain's <i><a title="Journals (Cobain)" href="//">Journals</a></i> and the band's best-of compilation <i><a title="Nirvana (Nirvana album)" href="//">Nirvana</a></i> upon their releases in 2002, <i>The New York Times</i> argued Nirvana "are having more success now than at any point since Mr. Cobain's suicide in 1994." The Nirvana song "<a title="You Know You're Right" href="//">You Know You're Right</a>" reached #1 on the <a class="mw-redirect" title="Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks" href="//">Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks</a> chart. In the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, <i><a title="The Seattle Times" href="//">The Seattle Times</a></i> made note of grunge-influenced groups emerging in Seattle, including Post Stardom Depression, The Valley, and The Weapons. Similarly, <i><a title="The Guardian" href="//">The Guardian</a></i> reported of grunge-influenced groups from <a title="Yorkshire and the Humber" href="//">Yorkshire</a>, including <a title="Dinosaur Pile-Up" href="//">Dinosaur Pile-Up</a>, The Old Romantic Killer Band, The Tempus, Above Them, <a title="Pulled Apart by Horses" href="//">Pulled Apart by Horses</a>, and <a title="Wonderswan (band)" href="//">Wonderswan</a>. Also, in 2003, the <i>New York Times</i> noted a resurgence in grunge fashion.</p>
185 <p>Alice In Chains reformed for a handful of reunion dates in 2005 with several different vocalists filing in for the late Layne Staley, eventually aligning with <a class="mw-redirect" title="William Duvall" href="//">William Duvall</a> and released their first record in 15 years in 2009 <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="Black Gives Way To Blue" href="//">Black Gives Way To Blue</a></i> a return to grunge form with a <a title="Doom metal" href="//">doom metal</a> sensibility and cementing a new era without their original singer, while releasing another record in 2013 <i><a title="The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here" href="//">The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here</a></i>, reaching #2 on the <i>Billboard</i> 200 and displaying more <a title="Stoner rock" href="//">stoner rock</a> and <a title="Sludge metal" href="//">sludge metal</a> influence. Soundgarden re-formed in 2010 and released <i><a title="King Animal" href="//">King Animal</a></i> two years later which reached the top five of the national albums charts in Denmark, New Zealand, and the United States.</p>
186 <h2>
187 <span id="Prominent_music_acts" class="mw-headline">Prominent music acts</span>
188 </h2>
189 <p>See Figure 4.1. (Bands labelled as 'grunge' by respondents).</p>
190 <dl>
191 <dt>Seattle area</dt>
192 </dl>
193 <h2>
194 <span id="See_also" class="mw-headline">See also</span>
195 </h2>
196 <ul>
197 <li>
198 <a title="Post-grunge" href="//">Post-grunge</a>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <a title="Alternative metal" href="//">Alternative metal</a>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <a title="List of American grunge bands" href="//">List of American grunge bands</a>
205 </li>
206 <li>
207 <a title="List of grunge albums" href="//">List of grunge albums</a>
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 <a title="Riot grrrl" href="//">Riot grrrl</a>
211 </li>
212 </ul>
213 <h2>
214 <span id="Notes" class="mw-headline">Notes</span>
215 </h2>
216 <div style="-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;" class="reflist columns references-column-count references-column-count-2">
217 <ol class="references">
218 <li id="cite_note-allmusic_grunge-1">
219 <span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-5"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Grunge"</a>. <a class="mw-redirect" title="Allmusic" href="//">Allmusic</a>. <a title="Rovi Corporation" href="//">Rovi Corporation</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 24 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Grunge&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=%27%27Allmusic%27%27&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
220 </li>
221 <li id="cite_note-2">
222 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Ramball, Paul (April 1, 1978). "he American Midwest: Akron and Cleveland--Exploring alternative hives of industry in Akron, City of Rubber, and Cleveland, City of Steel,". <i>NME</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=he+American+Midwest%3A+Akron+and+Cleveland--Exploring+alternative+hives+of+industry+in+Akron%2C+City+of+Rubber%2C+and+Cleveland%2C+City+of+Steel%2C&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rft.aulast=Ramball&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=NME&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="error citation-comment" style="display:none;font-size:100%"><code>|accessdate=</code> requires <code>|url=</code> (<a title="Help:CS1 errors" href="//">help</a>)</span></span>
223 </li>
224 <li id="cite_note-3">
225 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Humphrey, Clark. <i>Loser: The Real Seattle Music Story</i>. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 1-929069-24-3</a>, p. 63.</span>
226 </li>
227 <li id="cite_note-4">
228 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a title="Everett True" href="//">True, Everett</a> (20 January 2001). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"No End in Sight: Mudhoney Is Alive and Well"</a>. <i><a title="The Stranger (newspaper)" href="//">The Stranger</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 11 September 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=No+End+in+Sight%3A+Mudhoney+Is+Alive+and+Well&amp;rft.aufirst=Everett&amp;rft.aulast=True&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+Stranger&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
229 </li>
230 <li id="cite_note-5">
231 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Clinton Heylin" href="//">Heylin, Clinton</a>. <i>Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge</i>. Conongate, 2007. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 1-84195-879-4</a>, p. 606.</span>
232 </li>
233 <li id="cite_note-Hype-6">
234 <span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-5"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-6"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-7"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Pray, D., Helvey-Pray Productions (1996). <i><a title="Hype!" href="//!">Hype!</a></i> Republic Pictures.</span>
235 </li>
236 <li id="cite_note-7">
237 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Ragland, Cathy (19 November 1993). <a href=";slug=1732607" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Powerful, Melodic Gorilla Rises Above A Sea Of Grunge"</a>. <i>The Seattle Times</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Powerful%2C+Melodic+Gorilla+Rises+Above+A+Sea+Of+Grunge&amp;rft.aufirst=Cathy&amp;rft.aulast=Ragland&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+Seattle+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
238 </li>
239 <li id="cite_note-success_NYT-8">
240 <span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-5"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Marin, Rick. "Grunge: A Success Story". <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//">The New York Times</a></i>. 15 November 1992.</span>
241 </li>
242 <li id="cite_note-9">
243 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Freind, Bill (29 January 2002). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Grunge"</a>. <i>St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture</i>. Archived from <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 28 Jun 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 September 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Freind%2C+Bill&amp;rft.btitle=Grunge&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
244 </li>
245 <li id="cite_note-10">
246 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Marsh, Dave. "LIVE THROUGH THIS....". Rock &amp; Rap Archives 124.</span>
247 </li>
248 <li id="cite_note-11">
249 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Aston, Martin. "Freak Scene". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 12.</span>
250 </li>
251 <li id="cite_note-12">
252 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Mick Wall" href="//">Wall, Mick</a>. "Northwest Passage". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 9.</span>
253 </li>
254 <li id="cite_note-13">
255 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wall, Mick. "Northwest Passage". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 8.</span>
256 </li>
257 <li id="cite_note-14">
258 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Everley, Dave. "Daydream Nation". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 39.</span>
259 </li>
260 <li id="cite_note-15">
261 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Fricke, David. "Kurt Cobain: The Rolling Stone Interview". <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//">Rolling Stone</a></i>. 27 January 1994.</span>
262 </li>
263 <li id="cite_note-16">
264 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><i><a title="Guitar World" href="//">Guitar World</a></i> (1998). <a href=";printsec=frontcover" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><i>Guitar World Presents Nirvana and the Grunge Revolution</i></a>. Milwaukee: <a title="Hal Leonard Corporation" href="//">Hal Leonard Corporation</a>. pp.&nbsp;<a href=";pg=178&amp;dq=%22Beatles+and+Abba+just+as+much+as+we+liked+Flipper+and+Black+Flag%22%22You+listen+to+any+Pixies+record+and+it's+all+over+there.+Or+even+Black+Sabbath's%22%22War%20Pigs%22%22it's+there:+the+power+of+the+dynamic.+We+just+sort+of+abused+it+with+pop+songs+and+got+sick+with+it.%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">170-1</a>. <a title="International Standard Book Number" href="//">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a title="Special:BookSources/0-79359006-X" href="//">0-79359006-X</a>. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 978-0-79359006-3</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.btitle=Guitar+World+Presents+Nirvana+and+the+Grunge+Revolution&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft.isbn=0-79359006-X&amp;;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
265 </li>
266 <li id="cite_note-17">
267 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Heylin, p. 601.</span>
268 </li>
269 <li id="cite_note-18">
270 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Carden, Andrew. "Black Sabbath". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 34.</span>
271 </li>
272 <li id="cite_note-19">
273 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Bob Gulla" href="//">Gulla, Bob</a>, <i>The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Rock History: The grunge and post-grunge years, 1991-2005</i>, <a title="Greenwood Publishing Group" href="//">Greenwood Press</a>, 2006, p. 231.</span>
274 </li>
275 <li id="cite_note-20">
276 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Brannigan, Paul. "Outshined". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 102.</span>
277 </li>
278 <li id="cite_note-21">
279 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><i>Guitar World</i> (1998). <a href=";pg=PT8&amp;dq=%22Seattle.+Heign.+The.+Rise.+and.+Fall.+of.+Seattle.+Grunge.+By+Jon+Wiederhorn%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Seattle Reign. The Rise and Fall of Seattle Grunge. By Jon Wiederhorn (pp. 1-12)"</a>. "<a href=";pg=PT10&amp;dq=%22So+what+exactly+is+grunge?%22%22Picture+a+supergroup+made+up+of+Creedence+Clearwater+Revival,+Black+Sabbath+and+the+Stooges,+and+you're+pretty+close%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Quote</a>."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.btitle=Seattle+Reign.+The+Rise+and+Fall+of+Seattle+Grunge.+By+Jon+Wiederhorn+%28pp.+1-12%29&amp;;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
280 </li>
281 <li id="cite_note-Azerrad419-22">
282 <span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad419_22-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad419_22-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Michael Azerrad" href="//">Azerrad, Michael</a>. <i><a title="Our Band Could Be Your Life" href="//">Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981-1991</a></i>. Boston: <a title="Little, Brown and Company" href="//,_Brown_and_Company">Little, Brown and Company</a>, 2001. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 0-316-78753-1</a>, p. 419.</span>
283 </li>
284 <li id="cite_note-23">
285 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 418.</span>
286 </li>
287 <li id="cite_note-24">
288 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 439.</span>
289 </li>
290 <li id="cite_note-25">
291 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">McNair, James. "<i>Rust Never Sleeps</i> - Neil Young". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 36.</span>
292 </li>
293 <li id="cite_note-ew_rk-26">
294 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ew_rk_26-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a href=",,308818,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"This is the most important band in America?"</a>. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//">Entertainment Weekly</a></i>. 3 December 1993<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 15 June 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=This+is+the+most+important+band+in+America%3F&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
295 </li>
296 <li id="cite_note-Azerrad420-27">
297 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad420_27-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 420.</span>
298 </li>
299 <li id="cite_note-28">
300 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 436&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;37.</span>
301 </li>
302 <li id="cite_note-29">
303 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 421&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;22.</span>
304 </li>
305 <li id="cite_note-30">
306 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 411.</span>
307 </li>
308 <li id="cite_note-31">
309 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, James. <i>Selling Seattle: Representing Contemporary Urban America</i>. Wallflower, 2004. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 1-903364-96-5</a>. pp. 128&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;29.</span>
310 </li>
311 <li id="cite_note-32">
312 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 449.</span>
313 </li>
314 <li id="cite_note-33">
315 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 450.</span>
316 </li>
317 <li id="cite_note-34">
318 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wice, Nathaniel. "How Nirvana Made It". <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="Spin magazine" href="//">Spin</a></i>. April 1992.</span>
319 </li>
320 <li id="cite_note-35">
321 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 120</span>
322 </li>
323 <li id="cite_note-36">
324 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"The <i>Billboard</i> 200". <i><a title="Billboard (magazine)" href="//">Billboard</a></i>. <a title="Prometheus Global Media" href="//">Prometheus Global Media</a>. 11 January 1992.</span>
325 </li>
326 <li id="cite_note-37">
327 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Olsen, Eric (9 April 2004). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"10 years later, Cobain lives on in his music"</a>. <a title="MSNBC" href="//"></a>. <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Archived</a> from the original on 28 August 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 July 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aulast=Olsen%2C+Eric&amp;;rft.btitle=10+years+later%2C+Cobain+lives+on+in+his+music&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
328 </li>
329 <li id="cite_note-38">
330 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (1994), pp. 229-30.</span>
331 </li>
332 <li id="cite_note-39">
333 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Swanson, Carl (3 February 2013). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Are We Still Living in 1993?"</a>. <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="New York Magazine" href="//">New York Magazine</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 26 February 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Are+We+Still+Living+in+1993%3F&amp;rft.aufirst=Carl&amp;rft.aulast=Swanson&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=New+York+Magazine&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
334 </li>
335 <li id="cite_note-40">
336 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Pearlman, Nina. "Black Days". <i><a title="Guitar World" href="//">Guitar World</a></i>. December 2002.</span>
337 </li>
338 <li id="cite_note-41">
339 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 136.</span>
340 </li>
341 <li id="cite_note-42">
342 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 452&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;53.</span>
343 </li>
344 <li id="cite_note-43">
345 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 122.</span>
346 </li>
347 <li id="cite_note-44">
348 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Kobel, Peter (2 April 1993). <a href=",,306055,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Smells Like Big Bucks"</a>. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//">Entertainment Weekly</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 July 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Smells+Like+Big+Bucks&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;;rft.aulast=Kobel&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
349 </li>
350 <li id="cite_note-45">
351 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad, Michael. <i>Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana</i>. Doubleday, 1994. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 0-385-47199-8</a>, p. 254.</span>
352 </li>
353 <li id="cite_note-crowe-46">
354 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-crowe_46-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a title="Cameron Crowe" href="//">Crowe, Cameron</a> (28 October 1993). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Five Against the World"</a>. <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//">Rolling Stone</a></i>. Archived from <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 19 June 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 23 June 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Five+Against+the+World&amp;;rft.aufirst=Cameron&amp;rft.aulast=Crowe&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Rolling+Stone&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
355 </li>
356 <li id="cite_note-47">
357 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">DeRogatis, Jim. <i>Milk It!: Collected Musings on the Alternative Music Explosion of the 90s</i>. Cambridge: Da Capo, 2003. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 0-306-81271-1</a>, p. 18.</span>
358 </li>
359 <li id="cite_note-48">
360 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a href=",,308282,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"In Numero Uno"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i>. 8 October 1993<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 September 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=In+Numero+Uno&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
361 </li>
362 <li id="cite_note-49">
363 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Hajari, Nisid (19 November 1993). <a href=",,308749,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Pearl's Jam"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 August 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Pearl%27s+Jam&amp;rft.aufirst=Nisid&amp;;rft.aulast=Hajari&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
364 </li>
365 <li id="cite_note-allmusic_postgrunge-50">
366 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_postgrunge_50-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Post-Grunge"</a>. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Post-Grunge&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=%27%27Allmusic%27%27&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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368 <li id="cite_note-51">
369 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Britpop"</a>. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Britpop&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=%27%27Allmusic%27%27&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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371 <li id="cite_note-52">
372 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="John Harris (critic)" href="//">Harris, John</a>. "A shite sports car and a punk reincarnation". <i><a title="NME" href="//">NME</a></i>. 10 April 1993.</span>
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374 <li id="cite_note-53">
375 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Lock the Door". <i>Stop the Clocks</i> [bonus DVD]. Columbia, 2006.</span>
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377 <li id="cite_note-54">
378 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Handy, Bruce (18 April 1994). <a href=",9171,980562,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Never mind"</a>. <i><a title="Time (magazine)" href="//">Time</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 September 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Never+mind&amp;;rft.aulast=Handy%2C+Bruce&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Time&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
379 </li>
380 <li id="cite_note-55">
381 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Gordinier, Jeff (28 October 1994). <a href=",,304203,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"The Brawls in Their Courts"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 September 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=The+Brawls+in+Their+Courts&amp;;rft.aulast=Gordinier%2C+Jeff&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
382 </li>
383 <li id="cite_note-56">
384 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">DeRogatis, p. 65.</span>
385 </li>
386 <li id="cite_note-secondcoming-57">
387 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-secondcoming_57-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Hiatt, Brian (16 June 2006). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"The Second Coming of Pearl Jam"</a>. <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//">Rolling Stone</a></i>. Archived from <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 23 August 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 22 June 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=The+Second+Coming+of+Pearl+Jam&amp;;rft.aulast=Hiatt%2C+Brian&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Rolling+Stone&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
388 </li>
389 <li id="cite_note-58">
390 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-58">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Nelson, Chris (13 January 2003). <a href=";res=9C03E6DE1431F930A25752C0A9659C8B63" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Nine Years After Cobain's Death, Big Sales for All Things Nirvana"</a>.<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 August 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aulast=Nelson%2C+Chris&amp;;rft.btitle=Nine+Years+After+Cobain%27s+Death%2C+Big+Sales+for+All+Things+Nirvana&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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395 <li id="cite_note-60">
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397 </li>
398 <li id="cite_note-61">
399 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">La Ferla, Ruth (30 September 2003). <a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"FRONT ROW"</a>. <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//">The New York Times</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=FRONT+ROW&amp;;rft.aulast=La+Ferla%2C+Ruth&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
400 </li>
401 <li id="cite_note-62">
402 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Alice In Chains &acirc;&euro;&ldquo; Chart history: <i>Billboard</i> 200"</a>. <i>Billboard</i>. Prometheus Global Media<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 1 October 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Alice+In+Chains+%E2%80%93+Chart+history%3A+%27%27Billboard%27%27+200&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Billboard&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
403 </li>
404 <li id="cite_note-63">
405 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Soundgarden - <i>King Animal</i></a>.</span>
406 </li>
407 <li id="cite_note-64">
408 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Strong, Catherine (2011). <a href=";printsec=frontcover" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><i>Grunge: Music and Memory</i></a>. <a title="Farnham" href="//">Farnham</a>: <a title="Ashgate Publishing" href="//">Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.</a> p.&nbsp;<a href=";pg=PA73&amp;dq=%22Bands+labelled+as+'grunge'+by+respondents%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">73</a>. <a title="International Standard Book Number" href="//">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a title="Special:BookSources/1-40942377-8" href="//">1-40942377-8</a>. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//">ISBN 978-1-40942377-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aufirst=Catherine&amp;rft.aulast=Strong&amp;;rft.btitle=Grunge%3A+Music+and+Memory&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft.isbn=1-40942377-8&amp;;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
409 </li>
410 <li id="cite_note-65">
411 <span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">MacDonald, Patrick (31 July 1992). <a href=";slug=1505014" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Willard Is Saying 'Rats!' To Seattle's Grunge Profusion"</a>. <i>The Seattle Times</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Willard+Is+Saying+%27Rats%21%27+To+Seattle%27s+Grunge+Profusion&amp;rft.aufirst=Patrick&amp;rft.aulast=MacDonald&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+Seattle+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=in
1 <head></head>
2 <body>
3 <p><b>Pork</b> is the <a href="//" title="Culinary name">culinary name</a> for <a href="//" title="Meat">meat</a> from the <a href="//" title="Domestic pig">domestic pig</a> (<i><a href="//" title="Sus domesticus" class="mw-redirect">Sus domesticus</a></i>). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig <a href="//" title="Animal husbandry">husbandry</a> dating back to 5000 BC.</p>
4 <p>Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. <a href="//" title="Curing (food preservation)">Curing</a> extends the <a href="//" title="Shelf life">shelf life</a> of the pork products. <a href="//" title="Hams" class="mw-redirect">Hams</a>, <a href="//" title="Smoking (cooking)">smoked pork</a>, <a href="//" title="Ham">gammon</a>, <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a> and <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausage</a> are examples of preserved pork. <a href="//" title="Charcuterie">Charcuterie</a> is the branch of <a href="//" title="Cooking">cooking</a> devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork.</p>
5 <p>Pork is a popular meat in the Western world, and is also very common in <a href="//" title="Chinese cuisine">Chinese cuisine</a>. The religions of <a href="//" title="Judaism">Judaism</a> and <a href="//" title="Islam">Islam</a>, as well as several Christian denominations, forbid pork. It remains illegal in several Muslim countries. Raw or undercooked pork may contain <a href="//" title="Trichinosis">trichinosis</a>, but advances in <a href="//" title="Food hygiene" class="mw-redirect">food hygiene</a> have caused a decrease in cases.</p>
6 <p></p>
7 <p></p>
8 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
9 <p>The pig is one of the oldest forms of <a href="//" title="Livestock">livestock</a>, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC. It is believed to have been domesticated either in the <a href="//" title="Near East">Near East</a> or in <a href="//" title="China">China</a> from the <a href="//" title="Wild boar">wild boar</a>. The adaptable nature and <a href="//" title="Omnivorous" class="mw-redirect">omnivorous</a> diet of this creature allowed early humans to domesticate it much earlier than many other forms of livestock, such as <a href="//" title="Cattle">cattle</a>. <a href="//" title="Pigs" class="mw-redirect">Pigs</a> were mostly used for food, but people also used their <a href="//" title="Hides" class="mw-redirect">hides</a> for <a href="//" title="Shield">shields</a> and <a href="//" title="Shoe">shoes</a>, their <a href="//" title="Bone">bones</a> for tools and weapons, and their bristles for brushes. Pigs have other roles within the human economy: their feeding behaviour in searching for roots churns up the ground and makes it easier to <a href="//" title="Plough">plough</a>; their sensitive noses lead them to <a href="//" title="Truffles" class="mw-redirect">truffles</a>, an underground fungus highly valued by humans; and their omnivorous nature enables them to eat human rubbish, keeping settlements cleaner.</p>
10 <p><a href="//" title="Charcuterie">Charcuterie</a> is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>, <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a>, <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausage</a>, <i><a href="//" title="Terrine (food)">terrines</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="Galantine">galantines</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="P&acirc;t&eacute;s" class="mw-redirect">p&acirc;t&eacute;s</a></i>, and <i><a href="//" title="Confit">confit</a></i>, primarily from pork. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavours that are derived from the preservation processes. In 15th century France, local <a href="//" title="Guild">guilds</a> regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced <i>charcuterie</i> were those of the <i>charcutiers</i>. The members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only &quot;raw&quot; meat the <i>charcutiers</i> were allowed to sell was <a href="//" title="Rendering (food processing)" class="mw-redirect">unrendered</a> <a href="//" title="Lard">lard</a>. The <i>charcutier</i> prepared numerous items, including <i>p&acirc;t&eacute;s</i>, <i><a href="//" title="Rillettes">rillettes</a></i>, <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausages</a>, <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>, <a href="//" title="Pig's trotters">trotters</a>, and <a href="//" title="Head cheese">head cheese</a>.</p>
11 <p>Before the mass production and re-engineering of pork in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, <a href="//" title="Apple">apples</a> (harvested in late summer and autumn) have been a staple pairing to fresh pork. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates.</p>
12 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Consumption_patterns">Consumption patterns</span></h2>
13 <p>Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide, although consumption varies widely from place to place.</p>
14 <p>According to the <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a>'s <a href="//" title="Foreign Agricultural Service">Foreign Agricultural Service</a>, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, and a further 5% increase projected in 2007.</p>
15 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="2006_worldwide_pork_consumption">2006 worldwide pork consumption</span></h3>
16 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Asian_pork_consumption">Asian pork consumption</span></h3>
17 <p>Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine. It is consumed in a great many ways and highly esteemed in <a href="//" title="Chinese cuisine">Chinese cuisine</a>. There, pork is preferred over beef for economic and aesthetic reasons; the pig is easy to feed and is not used for labour. The colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is also considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to celebrate important occasion and to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a &quot;strategic pork reserve&quot;. Red braised pork (<i><a href="//" title="Hong shao rou" class="mw-redirect">hong shao rou</a></i>), a delicacy from <a href="//" title="Hunan Province" class="mw-redirect">Hunan Province</a>, is regarded as the &quot;brain food&quot; which inspired <a href="//" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a>.</p>
18 <p><i><a href="//" title="Feijoada">Feijoada</a></i>, the national dish of <a href="//" title="Brazil">Brazil</a> (also served in Portugal), is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears, tail and feet.</p>
19 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Pork_products">Pork products</span></h2>
20 <p>Pork may be cooked from fresh meat or cured over time. Cured meat products include <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a> and <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>. The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh <a href="//" title="Meat cuts" class="mw-redirect">meat cuts</a>, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide.</p>
21 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Fresh_meat">Fresh meat</span></h3>
22 <p>Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a <a href="//" title="Suckling pig">suckling pig</a>, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or <i><a href="//" title="Fl&aelig;skesteg">fl&aelig;skesteg</a></i>, prepared with crispy <a href="//" title="Pork rind">crackling</a> is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner.</p>
23 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Processed_pork">Processed pork</span></h3>
24 <p>Pork is particularly common as an ingredient in <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausages</a>. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including <a href="//" title="Chorizo">chorizo</a>, <a href="//" title="Fuet">fuet</a>, <a href="//" title="Cumberland sausage">Cumberland sausage</a> and <a href="//" title="Salami">salami</a>. Many brands of American <a href="//" title="Hot dogs" class="mw-redirect">hot dogs</a> and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as <a href="//" title="Charcuterie">charcuterie</a>.</p>
25 <p><a href="//" title="Ham">Ham</a> and <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a> are made from fresh pork by curing with salt (<a href="//" title="Pickling">pickling</a>) and/or <a href="//" title="Smoking (food)" class="mw-redirect">smoking</a>. Shoulders and legs are most commonly <a href="//" title="Curing (food preservation)">cured</a> in this manner for Picnic shoulder and <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a>, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side (round from the loin and streaky from the belly).</p>
26 <p>Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, and their consumption has increased with industrialisation. Non-western cuisines also use preserved meat products. For example, salted preserved pork or red roasted pork is used in Chinese and Asian cuisine.</p>
27 <p>Bacon is defined as any of certain <a href="//" title="Primal cut">cuts</a> of <a href="//" title="Meat">meat</a> taken from the sides, belly or back that have been cured and/or smoked. In continental Europe, it is used primarily in cubes (<a href="//" title="Lardon">lardons</a>) as a cooking ingredient valued both as a source of <a href="//" title="Fat">fat</a> and for its flavour. In <a href="//" title="Italy">Italy</a>, besides being used in cooking, bacon (<i><a href="//" title="Pancetta">pancetta</a></i>) is also served uncooked and thinly sliced as part of an <i><a href="//" title="Antipasto">antipasto</a></i>. Bacon is also used for <a href="//" title="Bacon">barding</a> roasts, especially game birds. Bacon is often smoked, using various types of wood, a process which can take up to ten hours. Bacon may be eaten fried, baked, or grilled.</p>
28 <p>A side of unsliced bacon is a &quot;flitch&quot; or &quot;slab bacon&quot;, while an individual slice of bacon is a &quot;rasher&quot; (Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) or simply a &quot;slice&quot; or &quot;strip&quot; (North America). Slices of bacon are also known as &quot;<a href="//" title="Collops">collops</a>&quot;. Traditionally, the skin is left on the cut and is known as &quot;bacon rind&quot;. Rindless bacon, however, is quite common. In both <a href="//" title="Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a> and the <a href="//" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a>, bacon comes in a wide variety of cuts and flavours, and is predominantly known as &quot;streaky bacon&quot;, or &quot;streaky rashers&quot;. Bacon made from the meat on the back of the pig is referred to as &quot;back bacon&quot; and is part of traditional <a href="//" title="Full breakfast">full breakfast</a> commonly eaten in <a href="//" title="Great Britain">Britain</a> and <a href="//" title="Ireland">Ireland</a>. In the United States, back bacon may also be referred to as &quot;Canadian-style Bacon&quot; or &quot;Canadian Bacon&quot;.</p>
29 <p>The <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a> defines bacon as &quot;the cured belly of a swine carcass&quot;, while other cuts and characteristics must be separately qualified (e.g. &quot;smoked pork loin bacon&quot;). &quot;USDA Certified&quot; bacon means that it has been treated for <i><a href="//" title="Trichinella">Trichinella</a></i>.</p>
30 <p>The canned meat <a href="//" title="Spam (food)">Spam</a> is made of chopped pork shoulder meat and ham.</p>
31 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cuts"><span id="cuts"></span> Cuts</span></h2>
32 <p>The pig is well known for being able to be used from nose-to-tail. There are different systems of naming for <a href="//" title="Primal cut">cuts</a> in America, Britain and France.</p>
33 <p>Head: This can be used to make <a href="//" title="Brawn" class="mw-redirect">brawn</a>, stocks and soups. After boiling, the ears can be fried or baked and eaten separately.</p>
34 <p>Spare rib roast/spare rib joint/blade shoulder/shoulder butt: This is the shoulder and contains the shoulder blade. It can be boned out and rolled up as a roasting joint, or cured as &quot;collar bacon&quot;. It is not to be confused with the rack of spare ribs from the front belly. Pork butt, despite its name, is from the upper part of the shoulder. The <a href="//" title="Boston butt">Boston butt</a>, or Boston-style shoulder, cut comes from this area, and may contain the shoulder blade.</p>
35 <p>Hand/arm shoulder/arm picnic: This can be cured <a href="//" title="Meat on the bone">on the bone</a> to make a ham-like product, or used in sausages.</p>
36 <p>Loin: This can be cured to give <a href="//" title="Back bacon">back bacon</a> or Canadian-style bacon. The loin and belly can be cured together to give a side of bacon. The loin can also be divided up into roasts (blade loin roasts, centre loin roasts, and sirloin roasts come from the front, centre, or rear of the loin), back ribs (also called baby back ribs, or riblets), pork cutlets, and <a href="//" title="Pork chop">pork chops</a>. A pork loin crown roast is arranged into a circle, either boneless or with rib bones protruding upward as points in a crown. <a href="//" title="Pork tenderloin">Pork tenderloin</a>, removed from the loin, should be practically free of fat. This high quality meat shows a very ordered arrangement of muscle cells that can cause <a href="//" title="Iridiscence" class="mw-redirect">light diffraction</a> and <a href="//" title="Structural coloration">structural coloration</a>.</p>
37 <p><a href="//" title="Fatback">Fatback</a>: The <a href="//" title="Subcutaneous fat" class="mw-redirect">subcutaneous fat</a> and skin on the back are used to make <a href="//" title="Pork rind">pork rinds</a>, a variety of cured &quot;meats&quot;, <a href="//" title="Lardon">lardons</a>, and <a href="//" title="Lard">lard</a>.</p>
38 <p><span id="Belly"></span>Belly/side/side pork: The belly, although a fattier meat, can be used for steaks or diced stir-fry meat. Belly pork may be rolled for roasting or cut for <a href="//" title="Streaky bacon" class="mw-redirect">streaky bacon</a>.</p>
39 <p>Legs/hams: Although any cut of pork can be cured, technically speaking only the back leg is entitled to be called a ham. Legs and shoulders, when used fresh, are usually cut bone-in for <a href="//" title="Roasting">roasting</a>, or leg steaks can be cut from the bone. Three common cuts of the leg include the rump (upper portion), centre, and shank (lower portion).</p>
40 <p><a href="//" title="Pig's trotters">Trotters</a>: Both the front and hind trotters can be cooked and eaten, as can the tail.</p>
41 <p><a href="//" title="Spare ribs">Spare ribs</a>, or spareribs, are taken from the pig's <a href="//" title="Rib">ribs</a> and the meat surrounding the bones. St. Louis–style spareribs have the sternum, cartilage, and skirt meat removed.</p>
42 <p>Knuckles, <a href="//" title="Chitterlings">intestines</a>, jowls and all other parts of the pig may also be eaten.</p>
43 <p>Tail: The tail has a very little amount of meat, but many people enjoy the flavor. It can be roasted, or fried, and it has a very strong flavor. The skin becomes very crisp, and the bone softens.</p>
44 <p><br style="clear:both;" /></p>
45 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutrition">Nutrition</span></h2>
46 <p>Its <a href="//" title="Myoglobin">myoglobin</a> content is lower than that of beef, but much higher than that of chicken. The <a href="//" title="United States Department of Agriculture">USDA</a> treats pork as a <a href="//" title="Red meat">red meat</a>. Pork is very high in <a href="//" title="Thiamin" class="mw-redirect">thiamin</a> (vitamin B<sub>1</sub>). Pork with its fat trimmed is leaner than the meat of most domesticated animals, but is high in <a href="//" title="Cholesterol">cholesterol</a> and <a href="//" title="Saturated fat">saturated fat</a>.</p>
47 <p>In 1987 the U.S. <a href="//" title="National Pork Board">National Pork Board</a> began an advertising campaign to position pork as &quot;<a href="//" title="Pork. The Other White Meat">the other white meat</a>&quot;—due to a public perception of chicken and turkey (white meat) as healthier than red meat. The campaign was highly successful and resulted in 87% of consumers identifying pork with the slogan. The board retired the slogan on 4 March 2011.</p>
48 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Religious_restrictions">Religious restrictions</span></h2>
49 <p>Eating of pork is prohibited by orthodox <a href="//" title="Jewish dietary laws" class="mw-redirect">Jewish dietary laws</a> and <a href="//" title="Islamic dietary laws">Islamic dietary laws</a>, and is also avoided by mainstream <a href="//" title="Seventh-day Adventist Church">Seventh-day Adventists</a>, <a href="//" title="Rastafarian" class="mw-redirect">Rastafarians</a>, and members of the <a href="//" title="Ethiopian Orthodox Church" class="mw-redirect">Ethiopian Orthodox Church</a>. It is considered unclean by some adherents of <a href="//" title="Hinduism">Hinduism</a>, but the (disputed) <a href="//" title="Scottish pork taboo">Scottish pork taboo</a> disappeared by 1800.</p>
50 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Christianity">Christianity</span></h3>
51 <p>Some sects of Christianity abstain from the consumption of pork. The prohibition is based on <a href="//" title="Leviticus" class="mw-redirect">Leviticus</a> chapter 11, <a href="//" title="Deuteronomy" class="mw-redirect">Deuteronomy</a> chapter 14, <a href="//" title="Isaiah">Isaiah</a> chapter 65 and <a href="//" title="Isaiah">Isaiah</a> chapter 66. Some denominations that forbid pork consumption are:</p>
52 <p><a href="//" title="Seventh-day Adventist Church">Seventh-day Adventists</a></p>
53 <p><a href="//" title="Rastafarian" class="mw-redirect">Rastafarian</a></p>
54 <p><a href="//" title="Ethiopian Orthodox" class="mw-redirect">Ethiopian Orthodox</a></p>
55 <p><a href="//" title="Messianic Jews" class="mw-redirect">Messianic Jews</a></p>
56 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Judaism">Judaism</span></h3>
57 <p>Pork is a well-known example of a <a href="//" title="Kosher foods">non-kosher food</a>. This prohibition is based on <a href="//" title="Leviticus" class="mw-redirect">Leviticus</a> chapter 11 and <a href="//" title="Deuteronomy" class="mw-redirect">Deuteronomy</a> chapter 14:</p>
58 <blockquote>
59 <p>These are the creatures that you may eat from among all the animals that are upon the land. Everything that possesses a split hoof, which is fully cloven, and that brings up its cud—this you may eat. But this is what you shall not eat from what brings up its cud or possesses split hooves—the camel, because it brings up its cud but does not possess split hooves...and the pig, because it has split hooves that are completely cloven, but it does not bring up its cud—it is impure to you and from its flesh you may not eat.</p>
60 <dl>
61 <dd>
62 —Leviticus 11:2–4, 7–8
63 </dd>
64 </dl>
65 </blockquote>
66 <blockquote>
67 <p>And the pig, because it possesses split hooves and does not bring up its cud—from its flesh you may not eat.</p>
68 <dl>
69 <dd>
70 —Deuteronomy 14:8
71 </dd>
72 </dl>
73 </blockquote>
74 <p>As indicated by the Torah verses, pork is non-kosher because Jews may not consume an animal that possesses one trait but not the other of cloven hooves and regurgitating <a href="//" title="Cud">cud</a>. Hogs, which are not <a href="//" title="Ruminant">ruminants</a>, do not chew cud as <a href="//" title="Cattle">cattle</a> and <a href="//" title="Sheep">sheep</a> do.</p>
75 <p>In <a href="//" title="Israel">Israel</a> pig-raising has been limited by law to certain areas and institutions. Some pig-related laws are openly circumvented. Swine production has increased from an estimated annual slaughter of 50,000 swine in 1960 to 180,000 in 2010. Pigmeat consumption per capita was 2.7&nbsp;kg in 2009. Although pork marketing is prohibited in some religious localities, pork products are available elsewhere at non-kosher butchers and by the Mizra and <a href="//" title="Tiv Ta'am">Tiv Ta'am</a> non-kosher supermarket chain which caters to Russian immigrants. A modern Hebrew euphemism for pork is &quot;white meat&quot;.</p>
76 <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Islam">Islam</span></h3>
77 <p>Pork is prohibited by the <a href="//" title="Islamic dietary laws">Islamic dietary laws</a>. Throughout the <a href="//" title="Islamic world" class="mw-redirect">Islamic world</a> many countries severely restrict the importation or consumption of pork products. Examples are <a href="//" title="Iran">Iran</a>, <a href="//" title="Mauritania">Mauritania</a>, <a href="//" title="Oman">Oman</a>, <a href="//" title="Qatar">Qatar</a>, <a href="//" title="Saudi Arabia">Saudi Arabia</a>, <a href="//" title="Kuwait">Kuwait</a>, <a href="//" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a> and <a href="//" title="Maldives">Maldives</a>. However, in other Muslim countries such as <a href="//" title="Egypt">Egypt</a>, <a href="//" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>, <a href="//" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a> and parts of the <a href="//" title="UAE" class="mw-redirect">UAE</a> such as <a href="//" title="Dubai">Dubai</a>, pork is available in international hotels and some supermarkets that cater for expatriates and non-Muslims.</p>
78 <p>The <a href="//" title="Qur'an" class="mw-redirect">Qur'anic</a> basis for the Islamic prohibition of pork can be found in suras 2:173, 5:3, 5:60, 6:145 and 16:115.</p>
79 <blockquote>
80 <p>He has forbidden you only the Maitah [i.e. <a href="//" title="Carrion">carrion</a>], and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-forgiving Most Merciful.</p>
81 <dl>
82 <dd>
83 —Chapter (Sura) 2 - Verse (Ayat) 173 Al-Baqara (The Cow)
84 </dd>
85 </dl>
86 </blockquote>
87 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Disease_in_pork">Disease in pork</span></h2>
88 <p>Pork is known to carry some diseases such as <a href="//" title="Pork tapeworm" class="mw-redirect">pork tapeworm</a> and <a href="//" title="Trichinosis">trichinosis</a>, thus uncooked or undercooked pork can be dangerous to consume.</p>
89 <p>Undercooked or untreated pork may harbour pathogens, or can be recontaminated after cooking if left exposed for a long period of time. In one instance, the <a href="//" title="Food Safety and Inspection Service">Food Safety and Inspection Service</a> (FSIS) detected <i><a href="//" title="Listeria monocytogenes">Listeria monocytogenes</a></i> in 460&nbsp;lbs of Polidori brand fully cooked pork sausage crumbles, although no one was made ill from consumption of the product. The FSIS has previously stated <i>Listeria</i> and other microorganisms will be &quot;destroyed by proper handling and thorough cooking to an internal temperature of 160&nbsp;&deg;F (71&nbsp;&deg;C)&quot; and that other microorganisms, such as <i><a href="//" title="Escherichia coli">E. coli</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="Salmonella">Salmonella</a></i>, and <i><a href="//" title="Staphylococcus aureus">Staphylococcus aureus</a></i> can be found in inadequately cooked pork, poultry, and other meats. The FSIS, a part of the USDA, currently recommends cooking <a href="//" title="Ground meat">ground pork</a> to 160&nbsp;&deg;F (71&nbsp;&deg;C) and whole cuts to 145&nbsp;&deg;F (63&nbsp;&deg;C) followed by a 3-minute rest.</p>
90 <p>Pigs can be carriers of various <a href="//" title="Helminths">helminths</a>, such as <a href="//" title="Roundworm" class="mw-redirect">roundworms</a>, <a href="//" title="Pinworm">pinworms</a>, <a href="//" title="Hookworm">hookworms</a>. One of the more common is <i><a href="//" title="Taenia solium">Taenia solium</a></i>, a type of <a href="//" title="Tapeworm" class="mw-redirect">tapeworm</a>, which may transplant to the intestines of humans after consuming undercooked meat.</p>
91 <p>Although not a common cause of illness, <i><a href="//" title="Yersinia enterocolitica">Yersinia enterocolitica</a></i>—which causes gastroenteritis—is present in various foods, but is most frequently caused by eating uncooked or undercooked pork and can grow in refrigerated conditions. The bacteria can be killed by heat. Nearly all outbreaks in the US have been traced to pork.</p>
92 <p>Pork may be the reservoir responsible for sporadic, locally acquired cases of acute <a href="//" title="Hepatitis E">hepatitis E</a> (HEV) reported in regions with relatively mild climates. It has been found to transmit between swine and humans.</p>
93 <p><a href="//" title="Trichinosis">Trichinosis</a>, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a <a href="//" title="Parasitic disease">parasitic disease</a> caused by eating raw or undercooked pork infected with the <a href="//" title="Larva">larvae</a> of a species of <a href="//" title="Roundworm" class="mw-redirect">roundworm</a> <i><a href="//" title="Trichinella spiralis">Trichinella spiralis</a></i>, commonly called the trichina worm. Infection was once very common, but is now rare in the <a href="//" title="First World">developed world</a>. From 2002 to 2007, an annual average of 11 cases per year were reported in the United States; the majority were from consuming wild game or the source was unknown. The number of cases has decreased because of legislation prohibiting the feeding of raw meat garbage to hogs, increased commercial and home freezing of pork, and the public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game products.</p>
94 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
95 <div class="noprint tright portal" style="border:solid #aaa 1px;margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;">
96 </div>
97 <p><a href="//" title="Beef">Beef</a></p>
98 <p><a href="//" title="List of pork dishes">List of pork dishes</a></p>
99 <p><a href="//" title="Pig farming">Pig farming</a></p>
100 <p><a href="//" title="Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork">Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork</a></p>
101 <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
102 <div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
103 <ol class="references">
104 <p id=""><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fao.org_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="">[1]</a>. FAO. 25 September 2012.</span></p>
105 <p id="cite_note-cdc-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-cdc_2-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-cdc_2-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Trichinellosis Fact Sheet&quot;</a>. Centers for Disease Control, US Government. 2004<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 February 2011</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Trichinellosis+Fact+Sheet&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
106 <p id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Pigs Force Rethink on Human History</a> University of Oxford Press Office. 11 March 2005.</span></p>
107 <p id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, 18.; The Culinary Institute of America, 3.</span></p>
108 <p id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, 19.</span></p>
109 <p id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Thompson, Michael D., “‘Everything but the Squeal’: Pork as Culture in Eastern North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review, 82 (Oct. 2005), 464–98. Heavily illustrated.</span></p>
110 <p id="cite_note-fas2006-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-fas2006_7-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-fas2006_7-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=";Poultry.pdf">&quot;Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade.&quot;</a> Circular Series DL&amp;P 2-06, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, October 2006. Retrieved on 15 August 2007.</span></p>
111 <p id="cite_note-Solomon-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Solomon_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Solomon, Charmaine (1996). <i>Encyclopedia of Asian Food</i>. Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia. p.&nbsp;288. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/0-85561-688-1">0-85561-688-1</a>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aufirst=Charmaine&amp;rft.aulast=Solomon&amp;;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+Asian+Food&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-85561-688-1&amp;rft.pages=288&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
112 <p id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Tropp, Barbara (1982). <i>The Modern Art of Chinese Cooking</i>. New York: Hearst Books. p.&nbsp;183. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/0-688-14611-2">0-688-14611-2</a>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aufirst=Barbara&amp;rft.aulast=Tropp&amp;;rft.btitle=The+Modern+Art+of+Chinese+Cooking&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-688-14611-2&amp;rft.pages=183&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
113 <p id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Wines, Michael (15 July 2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;China Plans to Release Some of Its Pork Stockpile to Hold Down Prices&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 15 November 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=China+Plans+to+Release+Some+of+Its+Pork+Stockpile+to+Hold+Down+Prices&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rft.aulast=Wines&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
114 <p id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Moore, Malcolm (29 January 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;China sets standard for Chairman Mao's favourite dish&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="The Daily Telegraph">The Daily Telegraph</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 23 April 2014</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=China+sets+standard+for+Chairman+Mao%27s+favourite+dish&amp;rft.aufirst=Malcolm&amp;rft.aulast=Moore&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+Daily+Telegraph&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
115 <p id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=""></a></span></p>
116 <p id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Danish Christmas dinner&quot;</a>, <i>Wonderful Denmark</i>. Retrieved 17 December 2011.</span></p>
117 <p id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, Michael and Polcyn, Brian. Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking and Curing. New York: W.W Norton &amp; Company, 2008. <a href="//" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-393-05829-1</a></span></p>
118 <p id="cite_note-urmis-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-2"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Cattleman's Beef Board &amp; National Cattlemen's Beef Association. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Uniform Retail Meat Identity Standards</a>. Retrieved 9 July 2007.</span></p>
119 <p id="cite_note-fsis-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fsis_16-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: Glossery B</a>. Retrieved 9 July 2007.</span></p>
120 <p id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Mother Earth News - What Good Is A Pig by Walter Jeffries</a></span></p>
121 <p id="cite_note-foods-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-foods_18-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation journal">Martinez-Hurtado, J L (November 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Foods&quot;</a>. <i>Iridescence in Meat Caused by Surface Gratings</i> <b>2</b> (2): 499–506. <a href="//" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">10.3390/foods2040499</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 1 March 2014</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Foods&amp;rft.aulast=Martinez-Hurtado%2C+J+L&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3390%2Ffoods2040499&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.jtitle=Iridescence+in+Meat+Caused+by+Surface+Gratings&amp;rft.pages=499-506&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=2" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
122 <p id="cite_note-pork-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-pork_19-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">{{Expand section cite news |author=Hugh Fearnley Wittingstall |publisher=Harper Collins |title=The River cottage cookbook }}</span></p>
123 <p id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table</a> <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a> Food Safety and Inspection Service.</span></p>
124 <p id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=""> Nutrition Facts</a></span></p>
125 <p id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Pork board swaps 'White Meat' for 'Be Inspired<span style="padding-right:0.2em;">'</span>&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="Associated Press">Associated Press</a></i>. 4 March 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 March 2011</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Pork+board+swaps+%27White+Meat%27+for+%27Be+Inspired%27&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Associated+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
126 <p id="cite_note-haaretz-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-haaretz_23-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-haaretz_23-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Segev, Tom (27 January 2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;The Makings of History / Pork and the people&quot;</a>. <i>HaAretz</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=The+Makings+of+History+%2F+Pork+and+the+people&amp;rft.aufirst=Tom&amp;rft.aulast=Segev&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=HaAretz&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
127 <p id=""><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-porklaws.il_24-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-porklaws.il_24-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Barak-Erez, Daphne (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=",%20Religion,%20and%20Culture%20in%20Israel.1280778.html"><i>Outlawed Pigs: Law, Religion, and Culture in Israel</i></a>. Univ of Wisconsin Press. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/9780299221607">9780299221607</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aufirst=Daphne&amp;rft.aulast=Barak-Erez&amp;rft.btitle=Outlawed+Pigs%3A+Law%2C+Religion%2C+and+Culture+in+Israel&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft.isbn=9780299221607&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
128 <p id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Concern for Helping Animals in Israel (CHAI). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Pigs FACTSHEET&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Concern+for+Helping+Animals+in+Israel+%28CHAI%29&amp;rft.btitle=Pigs++FACTSHEET&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
129 <p id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;FAOSTAT&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Food+and+Agriculture+Organization+of+the+United+Nations&amp;rft.btitle=FAOSTAT&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
130 <p id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;FAOSTAT&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Food+and+Agriculture+Organization+of+the+United+Nations&amp;rft.btitle=FAOSTAT&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
131 <p id="cite_note-forward-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-forward_28-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-forward_28-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Yoskowitz, Jeffrey (24 April 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;On Israel’s Only Jewish-Run Pig Farm, It’s The Swine That Bring Home the Bacon - Letter From Kibbutz Lahav By April 24, 2008&quot;</a>. <i>Forward</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=On+Israel%E2%80%99s+Only+Jewish-Run+Pig+Farm%2C+It%E2%80%99s+The+Swine+That+Bring+Home+the+Bacon+-+Letter+From+Kibbutz+Lahav++By+++April+24%2C+2008&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey&amp;rft.aulast=Yoskowitz&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Forward&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
132 <p id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Iran</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p>
133 <p id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Mauritania</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p>
134 <p id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Advice for Oman</a> Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade</span></p>
135 <p id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Qatar</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p>
136 <p id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Saudi Arabia</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. It is often used by abusers to address Pakistan.</span></p>
137 <p id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="">[2]</a></span></p>
138 <p id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;More meat recalls: pork sausage due to listeria contamination&quot;</a>. 1 May 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 June 2010</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=More+meat+recalls%3A+pork+sausage+due+to+listeria+contamination&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
139 <p id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Safety of Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 June 2010</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Safety+of+Fresh+Pork...from+Farm+to+Table&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
140 <p id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 July 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Fresh+Pork...from+Farm+to+Table&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p>
141 <p id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="
2222 compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
2323 compile 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:2.0.0'
2424 compile ''
25 compile 'jtidy:jtidy:+'
2625 compile ''
26 compile 'org.jsoup:jsoup:1.7.3'
2727 }
6363 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="play-services-wearable-5.0.77" level="project" />
6464 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="guava-17.0" level="project" />
6565 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="support-v4-19.1.0" level="project" />
66 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="jsoup-1.7.3" level="project" />
6667 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="okio-1.0.0" level="project" />
6768 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="okhttp-2.0.0" level="project" />
68 <orderEntry type="library" exported="" name="jtidy-4aug2000r7-dev" level="project" />
6969 </component>
7070 </module>
mobile/src/main/java/co/r3labs/wearipedia/ less more
0 package co.r3labs.wearipedia;
2 import android.util.Log;
4 import;
6 import org.w3c.dom.Document;
7 import org.w3c.dom.NamedNodeMap;
8 import org.w3c.dom.Node;
9 import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;
10 import org.w3c.tidy.Tidy;
12 import;
13 import;
15 import javax.xml.transform.Transformer;
16 import javax.xml.transform.TransformerConfigurationException;
17 import javax.xml.transform.TransformerException;
18 import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory;
19 import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource;
20 import;
22 public class HtmlCleaner {
23 private static final String TAG = "HtmlCleaner";
25 private static final ImmutableSet<String> REMOVE_TAGS =
26 ImmutableSet.of("table", "img", "figure", "sup", "audio");
27 private static final ImmutableSet<String> REMOVE_IDS =
28 ImmutableSet.of("good-star");
29 private static final ImmutableSet<String> REMOVE_CLASSES =
30 ImmutableSet.of("haudio", "hatnote", "metadata");
32 public static String clean(String input) {
33 Tidy parser = new Tidy();
34 parser.setQuiet(true);
35 parser.setRawOut(true);
36 parser.setSmartIndent(true);
37 parser.setTidyMark(false);
38 Document document = parser.parseDOM(new ByteArrayInputStream(input.getBytes()), null);
39 walk(document, document);
40 walk(document, document);
42 Transformer transformer = null;
43 StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
44 // Jesus this API is ugly.
45 try {
46 transformer = TransformerFactory.newInstance().newTransformer();
47 } catch (TransformerConfigurationException e) {
48 Log.e(TAG, "couldn't create transformer", e);
49 return input;
50 }
51 try {
52 transformer.transform(new DOMSource(document), new StreamResult(writer));
53 } catch (TransformerException e) {
54 Log.e(TAG, "couldn't perform transform", e);
55 return input;
56 }
57 return writer.toString();
58 }
60 private static void walk(Document d, Node n) {
61 if (n == null) {
62 return;
63 }
64 String name = n.getNodeName().toLowerCase();
65 if (REMOVE_TAGS.contains(name)) {
66 Log.d(TAG, " has remove-tag " + name);
67 removeNode(n);
68 return;
69 }
70 if (name.equals("li")) {
71 d.renameNode(n, "", "p");
72 }
73 if (n.hasAttributes()) {
74 NamedNodeMap attrs = n.getAttributes();
75 Node id = attrs.getNamedItem("id");
76 if (id != null && REMOVE_IDS.contains(id.getNodeValue().toLowerCase())) {
77 Log.d(TAG, " has remove-id " + id.getNodeValue());
78 removeNode(n);
79 return;
80 }
81 Node classes = attrs.getNamedItem("class");
82 if (classes != null) {
83 for (String cls : classes.getNodeValue().split(" ")) {
84 if (REMOVE_CLASSES.contains(cls.toLowerCase())) {
85 Log.d(TAG, " has remove-class " + cls);
86 removeNode(n);
87 return;
88 }
89 }
90 }
91 }
92 NodeList children = n.getChildNodes();
93 for (int i = 0, N = children.getLength(); i < N; i++) {
94 walk(d, children.item(i));
95 }
96 }
98 private static void removeNode(Node n) {
99 if (n.getParentNode() == null) {
100 Log.w(TAG, "couldn't remove " + n.getNodeName() + " tag");
101 return;
102 }
103 Log.d(TAG, "removing " + n.getNodeName() + " tag");
104 n.getParentNode().removeChild(n);
105 }
106 }
00 package co.r3labs.wearipedia;
2 import;
32 import android.content.Intent;
4 import;
53 import android.os.Bundle;
64 import android.os.Handler;
75 import android.os.HandlerThread;
8 import android.os.IBinder;
96 import android.os.Looper;
107 import android.os.Message;
118 import android.util.Log;
1310 import;
1411 import;
15 import;
1612 import;
1713 import;
1814 import;
2117 import;
2218 import;
2319 import com.squareup.okhttp.OkHttpClient;
24 import com.squareup.okhttp.Request;
25 import com.squareup.okhttp.Response;
2721 import;
2822 import;
2923 import;
3024 import;
31 import;
32 import;
33 import java.nio.charset.UnsupportedCharsetException;
3526 public class WearListener extends WearableListenerService {
3627 private static final String TAG = "Wearipedia";
135126 case MSG_PUT_DATA:
136127 String q = (String) m.obj;
137128 String url = String.format(URL_PATTERN, q);
139 Request netReq = new Request.Builder().url(url).build();
140 String body = null;
141 try {
142 Response response = mHttpClient.newCall(netReq).execute();
143 body = response.body().string();
144 } catch (IOException e) {
145 Log.w(TAG, "unable to fetch wikipedia data from URL " + url, e);
146 // TODO: write error to data item
147 return;
148 }
150 body = HtmlCleaner.clean(body);
129 String body = Wikiparser.fetch(url);
151130 writeDebugFile(body);
153132 String path = String.format(PATH_PATTERN_DATA, q);
0 package co.r3labs.wearipedia;
2 import android.util.Log;
4 import org.jsoup.Jsoup;
5 import org.jsoup.nodes.Document;
7 import;
9 public class Wikiparser {
10 private static final String TAG = "Wikiparser";
12 public static String fetch(String url) {
13 Document d = null;
14 try {
15 d = Jsoup.connect(url).get();
16 } catch (IOException e) {
17 Log.e(TAG, "couldn't fetch URL", e);
18 return null;
19 }
20"table, img, figure, sup, audio").remove();
21"#good-star, #toc").remove();
22".haudio, .hatnote, .metadata, .thumb").remove();
25 Log.d(TAG, "done");
26 return d.html();
27 }
28 }