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  <p><b>Pork</b> is the <a href="//" title="Culinary name">culinary name</a> for <a href="//" title="Meat">meat</a> from the <a href="//" title="Domestic pig">domestic pig</a> (<i><a href="//" title="Sus domesticus" class="mw-redirect">Sus domesticus</a></i>). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig <a href="//" title="Animal husbandry">husbandry</a> dating back to 5000 BC.</p> 
  <p>Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. <a href="//" title="Curing (food preservation)">Curing</a> extends the <a href="//" title="Shelf life">shelf life</a> of the pork products. <a href="//" title="Hams" class="mw-redirect">Hams</a>, <a href="//" title="Smoking (cooking)">smoked pork</a>, <a href="//" title="Ham">gammon</a>, <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a> and <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausage</a> are examples of preserved pork. <a href="//" title="Charcuterie">Charcuterie</a> is the branch of <a href="//" title="Cooking">cooking</a> devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork.</p> 
  <p>Pork is a popular meat in the Western world, and is also very common in <a href="//" title="Chinese cuisine">Chinese cuisine</a>. The religions of <a href="//" title="Judaism">Judaism</a> and <a href="//" title="Islam">Islam</a>, as well as several Christian denominations, forbid pork. It remains illegal in several Muslim countries. Raw or undercooked pork may contain <a href="//" title="Trichinosis">trichinosis</a>, but advances in <a href="//" title="Food hygiene" class="mw-redirect">food hygiene</a> have caused a decrease in cases.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>   
  <p>The pig is one of the oldest forms of <a href="//" title="Livestock">livestock</a>, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC. It is believed to have been domesticated either in the <a href="//" title="Near East">Near East</a> or in <a href="//" title="China">China</a> from the <a href="//" title="Wild boar">wild boar</a>. The adaptable nature and <a href="//" title="Omnivorous" class="mw-redirect">omnivorous</a> diet of this creature allowed early humans to domesticate it much earlier than many other forms of livestock, such as <a href="//" title="Cattle">cattle</a>. <a href="//" title="Pigs" class="mw-redirect">Pigs</a> were mostly used for food, but people also used their <a href="//" title="Hides" class="mw-redirect">hides</a> for <a href="//" title="Shield">shields</a> and <a href="//" title="Shoe">shoes</a>, their <a href="//" title="Bone">bones</a> for tools and weapons, and their bristles for brushes. Pigs have other roles within the human economy: their feeding behaviour in searching for roots churns up the ground and makes it easier to <a href="//" title="Plough">plough</a>; their sensitive noses lead them to <a href="//" title="Truffles" class="mw-redirect">truffles</a>, an underground fungus highly valued by humans; and their omnivorous nature enables them to eat human rubbish, keeping settlements cleaner.</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Charcuterie">Charcuterie</a> is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>, <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a>, <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausage</a>, <i><a href="//" title="Terrine (food)">terrines</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="Galantine">galantines</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="P&acirc;t&eacute;s" class="mw-redirect">p&acirc;t&eacute;s</a></i>, and <i><a href="//" title="Confit">confit</a></i>, primarily from pork. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavours that are derived from the preservation processes. In 15th century France, local <a href="//" title="Guild">guilds</a> regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced <i>charcuterie</i> were those of the <i>charcutiers</i>. The members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only &quot;raw&quot; meat the <i>charcutiers</i> were allowed to sell was <a href="//" title="Rendering (food processing)" class="mw-redirect">unrendered</a> <a href="//" title="Lard">lard</a>. The <i>charcutier</i> prepared numerous items, including <i>p&acirc;t&eacute;s</i>, <i><a href="//" title="Rillettes">rillettes</a></i>, <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausages</a>, <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>, <a href="//" title="Pig's trotters">trotters</a>, and <a href="//" title="Head cheese">head cheese</a>.</p> 
  <p>Before the mass production and re-engineering of pork in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, <a href="//" title="Apple">apples</a> (harvested in late summer and autumn) have been a staple pairing to fresh pork. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Consumption_patterns">Consumption patterns</span></h2>  
  <p>Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide, although consumption varies widely from place to place.</p> 
  <p>According to the <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a>'s <a href="//" title="Foreign Agricultural Service">Foreign Agricultural Service</a>, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, and a further 5% increase projected in 2007.</p> 
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="2006_worldwide_pork_consumption">2006 worldwide pork consumption</span></h3>   
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Asian_pork_consumption">Asian pork consumption</span></h3> 
  <p>Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine. It is consumed in a great many ways and highly esteemed in <a href="//" title="Chinese cuisine">Chinese cuisine</a>. There, pork is preferred over beef for economic and aesthetic reasons; the pig is easy to feed and is not used for labour. The colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is also considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to celebrate important occasion and to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a &quot;strategic pork reserve&quot;. Red braised pork (<i><a href="//" title="Hong shao rou" class="mw-redirect">hong shao rou</a></i>), a delicacy from <a href="//" title="Hunan Province" class="mw-redirect">Hunan Province</a>, is regarded as the &quot;brain food&quot; which inspired <a href="//" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a>.</p> 
  <p><i><a href="//" title="Feijoada">Feijoada</a></i>, the national dish of <a href="//" title="Brazil">Brazil</a> (also served in Portugal), is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears, tail and feet.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Pork_products">Pork products</span></h2>  
  <p>Pork may be cooked from fresh meat or cured over time. Cured meat products include <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a> and <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a>. The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh <a href="//" title="Meat cuts" class="mw-redirect">meat cuts</a>, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide.</p> 
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Fresh_meat">Fresh meat</span></h3> 
  <p>Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a <a href="//" title="Suckling pig">suckling pig</a>, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or <i><a href="//" title="Fl&aelig;skesteg">fl&aelig;skesteg</a></i>, prepared with crispy <a href="//" title="Pork rind">crackling</a> is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner.</p> 
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Processed_pork">Processed pork</span></h3> 
  <p>Pork is particularly common as an ingredient in <a href="//" title="Sausage">sausages</a>. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including <a href="//" title="Chorizo">chorizo</a>, <a href="//" title="Fuet">fuet</a>, <a href="//" title="Cumberland sausage">Cumberland sausage</a> and <a href="//" title="Salami">salami</a>. Many brands of American <a href="//" title="Hot dogs" class="mw-redirect">hot dogs</a> and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as <a href="//" title="Charcuterie">charcuterie</a>.</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Ham">Ham</a> and <a href="//" title="Bacon">bacon</a> are made from fresh pork by curing with salt (<a href="//" title="Pickling">pickling</a>) and/or <a href="//" title="Smoking (food)" class="mw-redirect">smoking</a>. Shoulders and legs are most commonly <a href="//" title="Curing (food preservation)">cured</a> in this manner for Picnic shoulder and <a href="//" title="Ham">ham</a>, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side (round from the loin and streaky from the belly).</p>  
  <p>Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, and their consumption has increased with industrialisation. Non-western cuisines also use preserved meat products. For example, salted preserved pork or red roasted pork is used in Chinese and Asian cuisine.</p> 
  <p>Bacon is defined as any of certain <a href="//" title="Primal cut">cuts</a> of <a href="//" title="Meat">meat</a> taken from the sides, belly or back that have been cured and/or smoked. In continental Europe, it is used primarily in cubes (<a href="//" title="Lardon">lardons</a>) as a cooking ingredient valued both as a source of <a href="//" title="Fat">fat</a> and for its flavour. In <a href="//" title="Italy">Italy</a>, besides being used in cooking, bacon (<i><a href="//" title="Pancetta">pancetta</a></i>) is also served uncooked and thinly sliced as part of an <i><a href="//" title="Antipasto">antipasto</a></i>. Bacon is also used for <a href="//" title="Bacon">barding</a> roasts, especially game birds. Bacon is often smoked, using various types of wood, a process which can take up to ten hours. Bacon may be eaten fried, baked, or grilled.</p>  
  <p>A side of unsliced bacon is a &quot;flitch&quot; or &quot;slab bacon&quot;, while an individual slice of bacon is a &quot;rasher&quot; (Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) or simply a &quot;slice&quot; or &quot;strip&quot; (North America). Slices of bacon are also known as &quot;<a href="//" title="Collops">collops</a>&quot;. Traditionally, the skin is left on the cut and is known as &quot;bacon rind&quot;. Rindless bacon, however, is quite common. In both <a href="//" title="Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a> and the <a href="//" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a>, bacon comes in a wide variety of cuts and flavours, and is predominantly known as &quot;streaky bacon&quot;, or &quot;streaky rashers&quot;. Bacon made from the meat on the back of the pig is referred to as &quot;back bacon&quot; and is part of traditional <a href="//" title="Full breakfast">full breakfast</a> commonly eaten in <a href="//" title="Great Britain">Britain</a> and <a href="//" title="Ireland">Ireland</a>. In the United States, back bacon may also be referred to as &quot;Canadian-style Bacon&quot; or &quot;Canadian Bacon&quot;.</p> 
  <p>The <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a> defines bacon as &quot;the cured belly of a swine carcass&quot;, while other cuts and characteristics must be separately qualified (e.g. &quot;smoked pork loin bacon&quot;). &quot;USDA Certified&quot; bacon means that it has been treated for <i><a href="//" title="Trichinella">Trichinella</a></i>.</p> 
  <p>The canned meat <a href="//" title="Spam (food)">Spam</a> is made of chopped pork shoulder meat and ham.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cuts"><span id="cuts"></span> Cuts</span></h2> 
  <p>The pig is well known for being able to be used from nose-to-tail. There are different systems of naming for <a href="//" title="Primal cut">cuts</a> in America, Britain and France.</p>     
  <p>Head: This can be used to make <a href="//" title="Brawn" class="mw-redirect">brawn</a>, stocks and soups. After boiling, the ears can be fried or baked and eaten separately.</p> 
  <p>Spare rib roast/spare rib joint/blade shoulder/shoulder butt: This is the shoulder and contains the shoulder blade. It can be boned out and rolled up as a roasting joint, or cured as &quot;collar bacon&quot;. It is not to be confused with the rack of spare ribs from the front belly. Pork butt, despite its name, is from the upper part of the shoulder. The <a href="//" title="Boston butt">Boston butt</a>, or Boston-style shoulder, cut comes from this area, and may contain the shoulder blade.</p> 
  <p>Hand/arm shoulder/arm picnic: This can be cured <a href="//" title="Meat on the bone">on the bone</a> to make a ham-like product, or used in sausages.</p> 
  <p>Loin: This can be cured to give <a href="//" title="Back bacon">back bacon</a> or Canadian-style bacon. The loin and belly can be cured together to give a side of bacon. The loin can also be divided up into roasts (blade loin roasts, centre loin roasts, and sirloin roasts come from the front, centre, or rear of the loin), back ribs (also called baby back ribs, or riblets), pork cutlets, and <a href="//" title="Pork chop">pork chops</a>. A pork loin crown roast is arranged into a circle, either boneless or with rib bones protruding upward as points in a crown. <a href="//" title="Pork tenderloin">Pork tenderloin</a>, removed from the loin, should be practically free of fat. This high quality meat shows a very ordered arrangement of muscle cells that can cause <a href="//" title="Iridiscence" class="mw-redirect">light diffraction</a> and <a href="//" title="Structural coloration">structural coloration</a>.</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Fatback">Fatback</a>: The <a href="//" title="Subcutaneous fat" class="mw-redirect">subcutaneous fat</a> and skin on the back are used to make <a href="//" title="Pork rind">pork rinds</a>, a variety of cured &quot;meats&quot;, <a href="//" title="Lardon">lardons</a>, and <a href="//" title="Lard">lard</a>.</p> 
  <p><span id="Belly"></span>Belly/side/side pork: The belly, although a fattier meat, can be used for steaks or diced stir-fry meat. Belly pork may be rolled for roasting or cut for <a href="//" title="Streaky bacon" class="mw-redirect">streaky bacon</a>.</p> 
  <p>Legs/hams: Although any cut of pork can be cured, technically speaking only the back leg is entitled to be called a ham. Legs and shoulders, when used fresh, are usually cut bone-in for <a href="//" title="Roasting">roasting</a>, or leg steaks can be cut from the bone. Three common cuts of the leg include the rump (upper portion), centre, and shank (lower portion).</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Pig's trotters">Trotters</a>: Both the front and hind trotters can be cooked and eaten, as can the tail.</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Spare ribs">Spare ribs</a>, or spareribs, are taken from the pig's <a href="//" title="Rib">ribs</a> and the meat surrounding the bones. St. Louis–style spareribs have the sternum, cartilage, and skirt meat removed.</p> 
  <p>Knuckles, <a href="//" title="Chitterlings">intestines</a>, jowls and all other parts of the pig may also be eaten.</p> 
  <p>Tail: The tail has a very little amount of meat, but many people enjoy the flavor. It can be roasted, or fried, and it has a very strong flavor. The skin becomes very crisp, and the bone softens.</p>  
  <p><br style="clear:both;" /></p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Nutrition">Nutrition</span></h2>  
  <p>Its <a href="//" title="Myoglobin">myoglobin</a> content is lower than that of beef, but much higher than that of chicken. The <a href="//" title="United States Department of Agriculture">USDA</a> treats pork as a <a href="//" title="Red meat">red meat</a>. Pork is very high in <a href="//" title="Thiamin" class="mw-redirect">thiamin</a> (vitamin B<sub>1</sub>). Pork with its fat trimmed is leaner than the meat of most domesticated animals, but is high in <a href="//" title="Cholesterol">cholesterol</a> and <a href="//" title="Saturated fat">saturated fat</a>.</p> 
  <p>In 1987 the U.S. <a href="//" title="National Pork Board">National Pork Board</a> began an advertising campaign to position pork as &quot;<a href="//" title="Pork. The Other White Meat">the other white meat</a>&quot;—due to a public perception of chicken and turkey (white meat) as healthier than red meat. The campaign was highly successful and resulted in 87% of consumers identifying pork with the slogan. The board retired the slogan on 4 March 2011.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Religious_restrictions">Religious restrictions</span></h2>  
  <p>Eating of pork is prohibited by orthodox <a href="//" title="Jewish dietary laws" class="mw-redirect">Jewish dietary laws</a> and <a href="//" title="Islamic dietary laws">Islamic dietary laws</a>, and is also avoided by mainstream <a href="//" title="Seventh-day Adventist Church">Seventh-day Adventists</a>, <a href="//" title="Rastafarian" class="mw-redirect">Rastafarians</a>, and members of the <a href="//" title="Ethiopian Orthodox Church" class="mw-redirect">Ethiopian Orthodox Church</a>. It is considered unclean by some adherents of <a href="//" title="Hinduism">Hinduism</a>, but the (disputed) <a href="//" title="Scottish pork taboo">Scottish pork taboo</a> disappeared by 1800.</p> 
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Christianity">Christianity</span></h3> 
  <p>Some sects of Christianity abstain from the consumption of pork. The prohibition is based on <a href="//" title="Leviticus" class="mw-redirect">Leviticus</a> chapter 11, <a href="//" title="Deuteronomy" class="mw-redirect">Deuteronomy</a> chapter 14, <a href="//" title="Isaiah">Isaiah</a> chapter 65 and <a href="//" title="Isaiah">Isaiah</a> chapter 66. Some denominations that forbid pork consumption are:</p>  
  <p><a href="//" title="Seventh-day Adventist Church">Seventh-day Adventists</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Rastafarian" class="mw-redirect">Rastafarian</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Ethiopian Orthodox" class="mw-redirect">Ethiopian Orthodox</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Messianic Jews" class="mw-redirect">Messianic Jews</a></p>  
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Judaism">Judaism</span></h3> 
  <p>Pork is a well-known example of a <a href="//" title="Kosher foods">non-kosher food</a>. This prohibition is based on <a href="//" title="Leviticus" class="mw-redirect">Leviticus</a> chapter 11 and <a href="//" title="Deuteronomy" class="mw-redirect">Deuteronomy</a> chapter 14:</p> 
   <p>These are the creatures that you may eat from among all the animals that are upon the land. Everything that possesses a split hoof, which is fully cloven, and that brings up its cud—this you may eat. But this is what you shall not eat from what brings up its cud or possesses split hooves—the camel, because it brings up its cud but does not possess split hooves...and the pig, because it has split hooves that are completely cloven, but it does not bring up its cud—it is impure to you and from its flesh you may not eat.</p> 
     —Leviticus 11:2–4, 7–8
   <p>And the pig, because it possesses split hooves and does not bring up its cud—from its flesh you may not eat.</p> 
     —Deuteronomy 14:8
  <p>As indicated by the Torah verses, pork is non-kosher because Jews may not consume an animal that possesses one trait but not the other of cloven hooves and regurgitating <a href="//" title="Cud">cud</a>. Hogs, which are not <a href="//" title="Ruminant">ruminants</a>, do not chew cud as <a href="//" title="Cattle">cattle</a> and <a href="//" title="Sheep">sheep</a> do.</p> 
  <p>In <a href="//" title="Israel">Israel</a> pig-raising has been limited by law to certain areas and institutions. Some pig-related laws are openly circumvented. Swine production has increased from an estimated annual slaughter of 50,000 swine in 1960 to 180,000 in 2010. Pigmeat consumption per capita was 2.7&nbsp;kg in 2009. Although pork marketing is prohibited in some religious localities, pork products are available elsewhere at non-kosher butchers and by the Mizra and <a href="//" title="Tiv Ta'am">Tiv Ta'am</a> non-kosher supermarket chain which caters to Russian immigrants. A modern Hebrew euphemism for pork is &quot;white meat&quot;.</p> 
  <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Islam">Islam</span></h3> 
  <p>Pork is prohibited by the <a href="//" title="Islamic dietary laws">Islamic dietary laws</a>. Throughout the <a href="//" title="Islamic world" class="mw-redirect">Islamic world</a> many countries severely restrict the importation or consumption of pork products. Examples are <a href="//" title="Iran">Iran</a>, <a href="//" title="Mauritania">Mauritania</a>, <a href="//" title="Oman">Oman</a>, <a href="//" title="Qatar">Qatar</a>, <a href="//" title="Saudi Arabia">Saudi Arabia</a>, <a href="//" title="Kuwait">Kuwait</a>, <a href="//" title="Pakistan">Pakistan</a> and <a href="//" title="Maldives">Maldives</a>. However, in other Muslim countries such as <a href="//" title="Egypt">Egypt</a>, <a href="//" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>, <a href="//" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a> and parts of the <a href="//" title="UAE" class="mw-redirect">UAE</a> such as <a href="//" title="Dubai">Dubai</a>, pork is available in international hotels and some supermarkets that cater for expatriates and non-Muslims.</p> 
  <p>The <a href="//" title="Qur'an" class="mw-redirect">Qur'anic</a> basis for the Islamic prohibition of pork can be found in suras 2:173, 5:3, 5:60, 6:145 and 16:115.</p> 
   <p>He has forbidden you only the Maitah [i.e. <a href="//" title="Carrion">carrion</a>], and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-forgiving Most Merciful.</p> 
     —Chapter (Sura) 2 - Verse (Ayat) 173 Al-Baqara (The Cow)
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Disease_in_pork">Disease in pork</span></h2>  
  <p>Pork is known to carry some diseases such as <a href="//" title="Pork tapeworm" class="mw-redirect">pork tapeworm</a> and <a href="//" title="Trichinosis">trichinosis</a>, thus uncooked or undercooked pork can be dangerous to consume.</p> 
  <p>Undercooked or untreated pork may harbour pathogens, or can be recontaminated after cooking if left exposed for a long period of time. In one instance, the <a href="//" title="Food Safety and Inspection Service">Food Safety and Inspection Service</a> (FSIS) detected <i><a href="//" title="Listeria monocytogenes">Listeria monocytogenes</a></i> in 460&nbsp;lbs of Polidori brand fully cooked pork sausage crumbles, although no one was made ill from consumption of the product. The FSIS has previously stated <i>Listeria</i> and other microorganisms will be &quot;destroyed by proper handling and thorough cooking to an internal temperature of 160&nbsp;&deg;F (71&nbsp;&deg;C)&quot; and that other microorganisms, such as <i><a href="//" title="Escherichia coli">E. coli</a></i>, <i><a href="//" title="Salmonella">Salmonella</a></i>, and <i><a href="//" title="Staphylococcus aureus">Staphylococcus aureus</a></i> can be found in inadequately cooked pork, poultry, and other meats. The FSIS, a part of the USDA, currently recommends cooking <a href="//" title="Ground meat">ground pork</a> to 160&nbsp;&deg;F (71&nbsp;&deg;C) and whole cuts to 145&nbsp;&deg;F (63&nbsp;&deg;C) followed by a 3-minute rest.</p> 
  <p>Pigs can be carriers of various <a href="//" title="Helminths">helminths</a>, such as <a href="//" title="Roundworm" class="mw-redirect">roundworms</a>, <a href="//" title="Pinworm">pinworms</a>, <a href="//" title="Hookworm">hookworms</a>. One of the more common is <i><a href="//" title="Taenia solium">Taenia solium</a></i>, a type of <a href="//" title="Tapeworm" class="mw-redirect">tapeworm</a>, which may transplant to the intestines of humans after consuming undercooked meat.</p> 
  <p>Although not a common cause of illness, <i><a href="//" title="Yersinia enterocolitica">Yersinia enterocolitica</a></i>—which causes gastroenteritis—is present in various foods, but is most frequently caused by eating uncooked or undercooked pork and can grow in refrigerated conditions. The bacteria can be killed by heat. Nearly all outbreaks in the US have been traced to pork.</p> 
  <p>Pork may be the reservoir responsible for sporadic, locally acquired cases of acute <a href="//" title="Hepatitis E">hepatitis E</a> (HEV) reported in regions with relatively mild climates. It has been found to transmit between swine and humans.</p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Trichinosis">Trichinosis</a>, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a <a href="//" title="Parasitic disease">parasitic disease</a> caused by eating raw or undercooked pork infected with the <a href="//" title="Larva">larvae</a> of a species of <a href="//" title="Roundworm" class="mw-redirect">roundworm</a> <i><a href="//" title="Trichinella spiralis">Trichinella spiralis</a></i>, commonly called the trichina worm. Infection was once very common, but is now rare in the <a href="//" title="First World">developed world</a>. From 2002 to 2007, an annual average of 11 cases per year were reported in the United States; the majority were from consuming wild game or the source was unknown. The number of cases has decreased because of legislation prohibiting the feeding of raw meat garbage to hogs, increased commercial and home freezing of pork, and the public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game products.</p> 
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2> 
  <div class="noprint tright portal" style="border:solid #aaa 1px;margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;">  
  <p><a href="//" title="Beef">Beef</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="List of pork dishes">List of pork dishes</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Pig farming">Pig farming</a></p> 
  <p><a href="//" title="Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork">Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork</a></p>  
  <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2> 
  <div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> 
   <ol class="references"> 
    <p id=""><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fao.org_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="">[1]</a>. FAO. 25 September 2012.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-cdc-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-cdc_2-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-cdc_2-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Trichinellosis Fact Sheet&quot;</a>. Centers for Disease Control, US Government. 2004<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 February 2011</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Trichinellosis+Fact+Sheet&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Pigs Force Rethink on Human History</a> University of Oxford Press Office. 11 March 2005.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, 18.; The Culinary Institute of America, 3.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, 19.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Thompson, Michael D., “‘Everything but the Squeal’: Pork as Culture in Eastern North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review, 82 (Oct. 2005), 464–98. Heavily illustrated.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-fas2006-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-fas2006_7-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-fas2006_7-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=";Poultry.pdf">&quot;Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade.&quot;</a> Circular Series DL&amp;P 2-06, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, October 2006. Retrieved on 15 August 2007.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-Solomon-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Solomon_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Solomon, Charmaine (1996). <i>Encyclopedia of Asian Food</i>. Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia. p.&nbsp;288. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/0-85561-688-1">0-85561-688-1</a>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aufirst=Charmaine&amp;rft.aulast=Solomon&amp;;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+Asian+Food&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-85561-688-1&amp;rft.pages=288&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Tropp, Barbara (1982). <i>The Modern Art of Chinese Cooking</i>. New York: Hearst Books. p.&nbsp;183. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/0-688-14611-2">0-688-14611-2</a>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.aufirst=Barbara&amp;rft.aulast=Tropp&amp;;rft.btitle=The+Modern+Art+of+Chinese+Cooking&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-688-14611-2&amp;rft.pages=183&amp;;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Wines, Michael (15 July 2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;China Plans to Release Some of Its Pork Stockpile to Hold Down Prices&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 15 November 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=China+Plans+to+Release+Some+of+Its+Pork+Stockpile+to+Hold+Down+Prices&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rft.aulast=Wines&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Moore, Malcolm (29 January 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;China sets standard for Chairman Mao's favourite dish&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="The Daily Telegraph">The Daily Telegraph</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 23 April 2014</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=China+sets+standard+for+Chairman+Mao%27s+favourite+dish&amp;rft.aufirst=Malcolm&amp;rft.aulast=Moore&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=The+Daily+Telegraph&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=""></a></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Danish Christmas dinner&quot;</a>, <i>Wonderful Denmark</i>. Retrieved 17 December 2011.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Ruhlman, Michael and Polcyn, Brian. Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking and Curing. New York: W.W Norton &amp; Company, 2008. <a href="//" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-393-05829-1</a></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-urmis-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-urmis_15-2"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Cattleman's Beef Board &amp; National Cattlemen's Beef Association. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Uniform Retail Meat Identity Standards</a>. Retrieved 9 July 2007.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-fsis-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fsis_16-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: Glossery B</a>. Retrieved 9 July 2007.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Mother Earth News - What Good Is A Pig by Walter Jeffries</a></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-foods-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-foods_18-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation journal">Martinez-Hurtado, J L (November 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Foods&quot;</a>. <i>Iridescence in Meat Caused by Surface Gratings</i> <b>2</b> (2): 499–506. <a href="//" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">10.3390/foods2040499</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 1 March 2014</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Foods&amp;rft.aulast=Martinez-Hurtado%2C+J+L&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.3390%2Ffoods2040499&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.jtitle=Iridescence+in+Meat+Caused+by+Surface+Gratings&amp;rft.pages=499-506&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.volume=2" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-pork-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-pork_19-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">{{Expand section cite news |author=Hugh Fearnley Wittingstall |publisher=Harper Collins |title=The River cottage cookbook }}</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table</a> <a href="//" title="USDA" class="mw-redirect">USDA</a> Food Safety and Inspection Service.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=""> Nutrition Facts</a></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Pork board swaps 'White Meat' for 'Be Inspired<span style="padding-right:0.2em;">'</span>&quot;</a>. <i><a href="//" title="Associated Press">Associated Press</a></i>. 4 March 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 March 2011</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=Pork+board+swaps+%27White+Meat%27+for+%27Be+Inspired%27&amp;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Associated+Press&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-haaretz-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-haaretz_23-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-haaretz_23-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Segev, Tom (27 January 2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;The Makings of History / Pork and the people&quot;</a>. <i>HaAretz</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=The+Makings+of+History+%2F+Pork+and+the+people&amp;rft.aufirst=Tom&amp;rft.aulast=Segev&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=HaAretz&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id=""><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-porklaws.il_24-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-porklaws.il_24-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Barak-Erez, Daphne (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href=",%20Religion,%20and%20Culture%20in%20Israel.1280778.html"><i>Outlawed Pigs: Law, Religion, and Culture in Israel</i></a>. Univ of Wisconsin Press. <a href="//" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="//" title="Special:BookSources/9780299221607">9780299221607</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aufirst=Daphne&amp;rft.aulast=Barak-Erez&amp;rft.btitle=Outlawed+Pigs%3A+Law%2C+Religion%2C+and+Culture+in+Israel&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft.isbn=9780299221607&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Concern for Helping Animals in Israel (CHAI). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Pigs FACTSHEET&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Concern+for+Helping+Animals+in+Israel+%28CHAI%29&amp;rft.btitle=Pigs++FACTSHEET&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;FAOSTAT&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Food+and+Agriculture+Organization+of+the+United+Nations&amp;rft.btitle=FAOSTAT&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;FAOSTAT&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;;rft.aulast=Food+and+Agriculture+Organization+of+the+United+Nations&amp;rft.btitle=FAOSTAT&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-forward-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-forward_28-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-forward_28-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Yoskowitz, Jeffrey (24 April 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;On Israel’s Only Jewish-Run Pig Farm, It’s The Swine That Bring Home the Bacon - Letter From Kibbutz Lahav By April 24, 2008&quot;</a>. <i>Forward</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 6 April 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.atitle=On+Israel%E2%80%99s+Only+Jewish-Run+Pig+Farm%2C+It%E2%80%99s+The+Swine+That+Bring+Home+the+Bacon+-+Letter+From+Kibbutz+Lahav++By+++April+24%2C+2008&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey&amp;rft.aulast=Yoskowitz&amp;;;rft.genre=article&amp;;rft.jtitle=Forward&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Iran</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Mauritania</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Advice for Oman</a> Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Qatar</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">Travel Report for Saudi Arabia</a> Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. It is often used by abusers to address Pakistan.</span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external autonumber" href="">[2]</a></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;More meat recalls: pork sausage due to listeria contamination&quot;</a>. 1 May 2010<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 June 2010</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=More+meat+recalls%3A+pork+sausage+due+to+listeria+contamination&amp;;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Safety of Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 June 2010</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Safety+of+Fresh+Pork...from+Farm+to+Table&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="">&quot;Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table&quot;</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 July 2013</span>.</span><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;;rft.btitle=Fresh+Pork...from+Farm+to+Table&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> 
    <p id="cite_note-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="