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<th style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Grunge</th>
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<th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Stylistic origins</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Alternative rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_rock">Alternative rock</a>, <a title="Hardcore punk" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardcore_punk">hardcore punk</a>, <a title="Heavy metal music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metal_music">heavy metal</a>, <a title="Punk rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_rock">punk rock</a>, <a title="Hard rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_rock">hard rock</a>, <a title="Noise rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_rock">noise rock</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Cultural origins</th><td class="hlist">Mid-1980s, <a class="mw-redirect" title="Seattle, Washington" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle,_Washington">Seattle, Washington</a>, <a title="United States" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States">United States</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Typical instruments</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Electric guitar" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_guitar">Electric guitar</a>, <a title="Bass guitar" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bass_guitar">bass guitar</a>, <a title="Drum kit" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_kit">drums</a>, <a title="Singing" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singing">vocals</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:left;" scope="row">Derivative forms</th><td class="hlist"><a title="Post-grunge" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-grunge">Post-grunge</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Fusion genres</th>
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<td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Nu metal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nu_metal">Nu metal</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Regional scenes</th>
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<td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Music of Washington (state)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Washington_(state)">Washington state</a></td>
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<th style="text-align:center;background-color: crimson; color:white;" colspan="2">Other topics</th>
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<td style="text-align:center;" class="hlist" colspan="2"><a title="Timeline of alternative rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_alternative_rock">Timeline of alternative rock</a> - <a title="Generation X" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generation_X#In_the_United_States">Generation X</a> - <a title="Grunge speak" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grunge_speak">Grunge speak hoax</a></td>
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<p>
<b>Grunge</b> (sometimes referred to as the <b>Seattle sound</b>) is a subgenre of <a title="Alternative rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_rock">alternative rock</a> that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American state of <a class="mw-redirect" title="Washington (U.S. state)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_(U.S._state)">Washington</a>, particularly in the <a title="Seattle" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle">Seattle</a> area. The early Grunge movement revolved around Seattle's <a title="Independent record label" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_record_label">independent record label</a> <i><a title="Sub Pop" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub_Pop">Sub Pop</a></i>, but by the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with Grunge acts in California and other parts of the U.S. building strong followings and signing major record deals.</p>
<p>Inspired by <a title="Hardcore punk" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardcore_punk">hardcore punk</a> and <a title="Heavy metal music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metal_music">heavy metal</a>, grunge is generally characterized by heavily <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distortion_(music)">distorted</a> <a title="Electric guitar" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_guitar">electric guitars</a>, contrasting song <a title="Dynamics (music)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamics_(music)">dynamics</a>, "<a title="Growling" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growling">growling</a>" vocals and apathetic or <a title="Angst" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angst">angst</a>-filled lyrics. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down compared with other forms of <a title="Rock music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_music">rock music</a>, and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics.</p>
<p>Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s, due mainly to the release of <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(band)">Nirvana</a>'s <i><a title="Nevermind" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevermind">Nevermind</a></i>, <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Jam">Pearl Jam</a>'s <i><a title="Ten (Pearl Jam album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_(Pearl_Jam_album)">Ten</a></i>, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a>'s <i><a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badmotorfinger">Badmotorfinger</a></i>, <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_in_Chains">Alice in Chains</a>' <i><a title="Dirt (Alice in Chains album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirt_(Alice_in_Chains_album)">Dirt</a></i>, and <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Temple_Pilots">Stone Temple Pilots</a>' <i><a title="Core (Stone Temple Pilots album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Core_(Stone_Temple_Pilots_album)">Core</a></i>. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of <a title="Hard rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_rock">hard rock</a> music at the time. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, their influence continues to affect modern rock music.</p>
<p>Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion, <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distortion_(music)">fuzz</a> and <a title="Audio feedback" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_feedback">feedback</a> effects. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. However, it also involves much slower <a title="Tempo" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempo">tempos</a>, <a title="Consonance and dissonance" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonance_and_dissonance">dissonant</a> harmonies, and more complex instrumentation&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;which is reminiscent of heavy metal. Lyrics are typically angst-filled, often addressing themes such as <a title="Social alienation" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_alienation">social alienation</a>, <a title="Apathy" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apathy">apathy</a>, confinement, and a desire for <a title="Liberty" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty">freedom</a>.</p>
<p>Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical <a title="Mainstream" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainstream">mainstream</a> in the late 1980s. <a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a> was the first grunge band to sign to a major label when they joined the roster of <a title="A&amp;M Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%26M_Records">A&amp;M Records</a> in 1989. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Nirvana's <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Cobain">Kurt Cobain</a>, labeled by <i>Time</i> as "the <a title="John Lennon" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lennon">John Lennon</a> of the swinging Northwest", appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin before he committed suicide at the age of 27 in 1994.</p>
<div class="toc" id="toc">
<div id="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1">
<a href="#Origin_of_the_term"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Origin of the term</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2">
<a href="#Characteristics"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Characteristics</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3">
<a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a> 
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4">
<a href="#Roots_and_influences"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Roots and influences</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5">
<a href="#Early_development"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Early development</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6">
<a href="#Mainstream_success"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Mainstream success</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7">
<a href="#Decline_of_mainstream_popularity"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Decline of mainstream popularity</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8">
<a href="#21st_century"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">21st century</span></a>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9">
<a href="#Prominent_music_acts"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Prominent music acts</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10">
<a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11">
<a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a> 
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12">
<a href="#Bibliography"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Bibliography</span></a>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13">
<a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<h2>
<span id="Origin_of_the_term" class="mw-headline">Origin of the term</span>
</h2>
<p>Although writer Paul Ramball used "grunge" in a 1978 <i><a title="NME" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NME">NME</a></i> article to describe mainstream guitar rock, <a title="Mark Arm" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Arm">Mark Arm</a>, the vocalist for the Seattle band <a title="Green River (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_River_(band)">Green River</a>&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;and later <a title="Mudhoney" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudhoney">Mudhoney</a>&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;is generally credited as being the first to use the term <i>grunge</i> to describe this genre of music. Arm first used the term .in 1981, when he wrote a letter under his given name Mark McLaughlin to the Seattle <a title="Zine" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zine">zine</a> <i>Desperate Times</i>, criticizing his band <i>Mr. Epp and the Calculations</i> as "Pure grunge! Pure noise! Pure shit!". Clark Humphrey, editor of <i>Desperate Times</i>, cites this as the earliest use of the term to refer to a Seattle band, and mentions that <a title="Bruce Pavitt" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Pavitt">Bruce Pavitt</a> of Sub Pop popularized the term as a musical label in 1987&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;88, using it on several occasions to describe Green River.</p>
<p>Arm said years later, "Obviously, I didn't make grunge up. I got it from someone else. The term was already being thrown around in <a title="Australia" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia">Australia</a> in the mid-'80s to describe bands like <a title="King Snake Roost" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Snake_Roost">King Snake Roost</a>, <a title="The Scientists" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Scientists">The Scientists</a>, <a title="Salamander Jim (page does not exist)" class="new" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salamander_Jim&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1">Salamander Jim</a>, and <a title="Beasts of Bourbon" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beasts_of_Bourbon">Beasts of Bourbon</a>." Arm used grunge as a descriptive term rather than a genre term, but it eventually came to describe the punk/metal hybrid sound of the Seattle music scene.</p>
<h2>
<span id="Characteristics" class="mw-headline">Characteristics</span>
</h2>
<p>Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion, <a title="Distortion (music)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distortion_(music)">fuzz</a>, and <a title="Audio feedback" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_feedback">feedback</a> effects. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. However, it also involves much slower <a title="Tempo" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempo">tempos</a>, <a title="Consonance and dissonance" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonance_and_dissonance">dissonant</a> harmonies, and more complex instrumentation&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;which is reminiscent of heavy metal. Some individuals associated with the development of grunge, including Sub Pop producer <a title="Jack Endino" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Endino">Jack Endino</a> and the <a title="Melvins" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melvins">Melvins</a>, explained grunge's incorporation of heavy rock influences such as <a title="Kiss (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiss_(band)">Kiss</a> as "musical provocation". Grunge artists considered these bands "cheesy" but nonetheless enjoyed them; <a title="Buzz Osborne" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Osborne">Buzz Osborne</a> of the Melvins described it as an attempt to see what ridiculous things bands could do and get away with. In the early 1990s, Nirvana's signature "stop-start" song format became a genre convention. Allmusic calls grunge a "hybrid of heavy metal and punk". Although keyboards are generally not used in grunge, Seattle band Gorrilla created controversy by breaking the "guitars only" approach and using a 1960s-style <a title="Vox (musical equipment)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vox_(musical_equipment)">Vox organ</a> in their group.</p>
<p>Lyrics are typically angst-filled, often addressing themes such as <a title="Social alienation" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_alienation">social alienation</a>, apathy, confinement, and a desire for freedom. A number of factors influenced the focus on such subject matter. Many grunge musicians displayed a general disenchantment with the state of society, as well as a discomfort with social prejudices. Such themes bear similarities to those addressed by punk rock musicians. Music critic <a title="Simon Reynolds" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Reynolds">Simon Reynolds</a> said in 1992 that "there's a feeling of burnout in the culture at large. Kids are depressed about the future". Humor in grunge often <a title="Parody" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parody">satirized</a> glam metal&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;for example, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a>'s "<a class="mw-redirect" title="Big Dumb Sex" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Dumb_Sex">Big Dumb Sex</a>"&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;and other forms of popular rock music during the 1980s.</p>
<p>Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy performances. Grunge bands rejected the complex and high budget presentations of many musical genres, including the use of complex light arrays, pyrotechnics, and other visual effects unrelated to playing the music. Stage acting was generally avoided. Instead the bands presented themselves as no different from minor local bands. Jack Endino said in the 1996 documentary <i>Hype!</i> that Seattle bands were inconsistent live performers, since their primary objective was not to be entertainers, but simply to "rock out".</p>
<p>Clothing commonly worn by grunge musicians in Washington consisted of <a title="Charity shop" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charity_shop">thrift store</a> items and the typical outdoor clothing (most notably <a title="Flannel" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flannel">flannel</a> shirts) of the region, as well as a generally unkempt appearance. The style did not evolve out of a conscious attempt to create an appealing fashion; music journalist <a title="Charles R. Cross" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Cross">Charles R. Cross</a> said, "[Nirvana frontman] <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Cobain">Kurt Cobain</a> was just too lazy to shampoo", and Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman said, "This [clothing] is cheap, it's durable, and it's kind of timeless. It also runs against the grain of the whole flashy aesthetic that existed in the 80s."</p>
<p>One of the philosophies of the grunge scene was authenticity. <a title="Dave Rimmer" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Rimmer">Dave Rimmer</a> writes that with the revival of punk ideals of stripped-down music in the early 1990s, with "Cobain, and lots of kids like him, rock &amp; roll...threw down a dare: Can you be pure enough, day after day, year after year, to prove your <a title="Authenticity (philosophy)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authenticity_(philosophy)">authenticity</a>, to live up to the music ... And if you can't, can you live with being a <a title="Poseur" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poseur">poseur</a>, a phony, a <a class="mw-redirect" title="Sellout" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellout">sellout</a>?"</p>
<h2>
<span id="History" class="mw-headline">History</span>
</h2>
<h3>
<span id="Roots_and_influences" class="mw-headline">Roots and influences</span>
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<p>Grunge's sound partly results from <a class="mw-redirect" title="Seattle music scene" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_music_scene">Seattle's isolation</a> from other music scenes. As Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman noted, "Seattle was a perfect example of a secondary city with an active music scene that was completely ignored by an American media fixated on Los Angeles and New York." Mark Arm claimed that the isolation meant, "this one corner of the map was being really inbred and ripping off each other's ideas". Grunge evolved from the local punk rock scene, and was inspired by bands such as <a title="The Fartz" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fartz">The Fartz</a>, <a title="The U-Men" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_U-Men">The U-Men</a>, <a title="10 Minute Warning" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Minute_Warning">10 Minute Warning</a>, <a title="The Acc&Atilde;&frac14;sed" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Acc%C3%BCsed">The Acc&Atilde;&frac14;sed</a>, and the <a title="Fastbacks" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fastbacks">Fastbacks</a>. Additionally, the slow, heavy, and sludgy style of the <a title="Melvins" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melvins">Melvins</a> was a significant influence on the grunge sound.</p>
<p>Outside the Pacific Northwest, a number of artists and music scenes influenced grunge. Alternative rock bands from the Northeastern United States, including <a title="Sonic Youth" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonic_Youth">Sonic Youth</a>, <a title="Pixies" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixies">Pixies</a>, and <a title="Dinosaur Jr." href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_Jr.">Dinosaur Jr.</a>, are important influences on the genre. Through their patronage of Seattle bands, Sonic Youth "inadvertently nurtured" the grunge scene, and reinforced the fiercely independent attitudes of its musicians. The influence of Pixies on Nirvana was noted by <a title="Kurt Cobain" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Cobain">Kurt Cobain</a>, who commented in a <i>Rolling Stone</i> interview, "I connected with that band so heavily that I should have been in that band&acirc;&euro;&rdquo;or at least a Pixies cover band. We used their sense of dynamics, being soft and quiet and then loud and hard." On August 1997, in an interview with <i><a title="Guitar World" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitar_World">Guitar World</a></i>, <a title="Dave Grohl" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Grohl">Dave Grohl</a> said: "From Kurt, <a title="Krist Novoselic" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krist_Novoselic">Krist</a> and I liking <a title="The Knack" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Knack">the Knack</a>, <a title="Bay City Rollers" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_City_Rollers">Bay City Rollers</a>, <a title="The Beatles" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beatles">Beatles</a> and <a title="ABBA" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABBA">Abba</a> just as much as we liked <a title="Flipper (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flipper_(band)">Flipper</a> and <a title="Black Flag (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Flag_(band)">Black Flag</a>...You listen to any Pixies record and it's all over there. Or even <a title="Black Sabbath" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sabbath">Black Sabbath</a>'s "<a title="War Pigs" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Pigs">War Pigs</a>"-it's there: the power of the dynamic. We just sort of abused it with <a title="Pop rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop_rock">pop songs</a> and got sick with it."</p>
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<div style="clear: left; text-align: left; background: transparent" class="thumbcaption">Seattle punk/metal band <a title="The U-Men" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_U-Men">The U-Men</a> performing in Seattle.</div>
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<p>Aside from the genre's punk and alternative rock roots, many grunge bands were equally influenced by heavy metal of the early 1970s. <a title="Clinton Heylin" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinton_Heylin">Clinton Heylin</a>, author of <i>Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge</i>, cited Black Sabbath as "perhaps the most ubiquitous pre-punk influence on the northwest scene". Black Sabbath played a role in shaping the grunge sound, through their own records and the records they inspired. Musicologist <a title="Bob Gulla" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Gulla">Bob Gulla</a> asserted that Black Sabbath's sound "shows up in virtually all of grunge's most popular bands, including <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(band)">Nirvana</a>, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a>, and <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_in_Chains">Alice in Chains</a>". The influence of <a title="Led Zeppelin" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Led_Zeppelin">Led Zeppelin</a> is also evident, particularly in the work of Soundgarden, whom <i>Q</i> magazine noted were "in thrall to '70s rock, but contemptuous of the genre's overt sexism and machismo". Jon Wiederhorn of <i>Guitar World</i> wrote: "So what exactly is grunge?...Picture a supergroup made up of <a title="Creedence Clearwater Revival" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creedence_Clearwater_Revival">Creedence Clearwater Revival</a>, Black Sabbath and <a title="The Stooges" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stooges">the Stooges</a>, and you're pretty close."</p>
<p>The Los Angeles hardcore punk band Black Flag's 1984 record <i><a title="My War" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_War">My War</a></i>, on which the band combined heavy metal with their traditional sound, made a strong impact in Seattle. Mudhoney's <a title="Steve Turner (guitarist)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Turner_(guitarist)">Steve Turner</a> commented, "A lot of other people around the country hated the fact that Black Flag slowed down...but up here it was really great...we were like 'Yay!' They were weird and fucked-up sounding." Turner explained grunge's integration of metal influences, noting, "Hard rock and metal was never that much of an enemy of punk like it was for other scenes. Here, it was like, 'There's only twenty people here, you can't really find a group to hate.'" Bands began to mix metal and punk in the Seattle music scene around 1984, with much of the credit for this fusion going to <a title="The U-Men" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_U-Men">The U-Men</a>.</p>
<p>The raw, distorted and feedback-intensive sound of some <a title="Noise rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_rock">noise rock</a> bands had an influence on grunge. Among them are Wisconsin's <a title="Killdozer (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killdozer_(band)">Killdozer</a>, and most notably <a title="San Francisco" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Francisco">San Francisco</a>'s Flipper, a band known for its slowed-down and murky "noise punk". The <a title="Butthole Surfers" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butthole_Surfers">Butthole Surfers</a>' mix of punk, heavy metal and noise rock was a major influence, particularly on the early work of Soundgarden.</p>
<p>After <a title="Neil Young" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young">Neil Young</a> played a few concerts with Pearl Jam and recorded the album <i><a title="Mirror Ball (Neil Young album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_Ball_(Neil_Young_album)">Mirror Ball</a></i> with them, some members of the media gave Young the title "Godfather of Grunge". This was grounded on his work with his band <a title="Crazy Horse (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crazy_Horse_(band)">Crazy Horse</a> and his regular use of distorted guitar, most notably on the album <i><a title="Rust Never Sleeps" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rust_Never_Sleeps">Rust Never Sleeps</a></i>. A similarly influential yet often overlooked album is <i><a title="Neurotica" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotica">Neurotica</a></i> by <a title="Redd Kross" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redd_Kross">Redd Kross</a>, about which the co-founder of Sub Pop said, "<i>Neurotica</i> was a life changer for me and for a lot of people in the Seattle music community."</p>
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<span id="Early_development" class="mw-headline">Early development</span>
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<p>A seminal release in the development of grunge was the <i><a title="Deep Six (album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Six_(album)">Deep Six</a></i> compilation, released by <a title="C/Z Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C/Z_Records">C/Z Records</a> in 1986. The record featured multiple tracks by six bands: Green River, <a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a>, Melvins, <a title="Malfunkshun" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malfunkshun">Malfunkshun</a>, <a title="Skin Yard" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin_Yard">Skin Yard</a>, and The U-Men. For many of them it was their first appearance on record. The artists had "a mostly heavy, aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore". As Jack Endino recalled, "People just said, 'Well, what kind of music is this? This isn't metal, it's not punk, What is it?' [...] People went 'Eureka! These bands all have something in common.'"</p>
<p>Later that year <a title="Bruce Pavitt" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Pavitt">Bruce Pavitt</a> released the <i><a title="Sub Pop 100" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub_Pop_100">Sub Pop 100</a></i> compilation and Green River's <i><a title="Dry As a Bone" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_As_a_Bone">Dry As a Bone</a></i> EP as part of his new label, Sub Pop. An early Sub Pop catalog described the Green River EP as "ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation". Sub Pop's Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman, inspired by other regional music scenes in music history, worked to ensure that their label projected a "<a title="Music of Seattle" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Seattle">Seattle sound</a>", reinforced by a similar style of production and album packaging. While music writer <a title="Michael Azerrad" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Azerrad">Michael Azerrad</a> acknowledged that early grunge bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Tad had disparate sounds, he noted "to the objective observer, there were some distinct similarities."</p>
<p>Early grunge concerts were sparsely attended (many by fewer than a dozen people) but Sub Pop photographer <a title="Charles Peterson (photographer)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Peterson_(photographer)">Charles Peterson</a>'s pictures helped create the impression that such concerts were major events. Mudhoney, which was formed by former members of Green River, served as the flagship band of Sub Pop during their entire time with the label and spearheaded the Seattle grunge movement. Other record labels in the Pacific Northwest that helped promote grunge included C/Z Records, <a title="Estrus Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estrus_Records">Estrus Records</a>, EMpTy Records and <a title="PopLlama Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PopLlama_Records">PopLlama Records</a>.</p>
<p>Grunge attracted media attention in the United Kingdom after Pavitt and Poneman asked journalist <a title="Everett True" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everett_True">Everett True</a> from the British magazine <i><a title="Melody Maker" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melody_Maker">Melody Maker</a></i> to write an article on the local music scene. This exposure helped to make grunge known outside of the local area during the late 1980s and drew more people to local shows. The appeal of grunge to the music press was that it "promised the return to a notion of a regional, authorial vision for <a title="American rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_rock">American rock</a>". Grunge's popularity in the <a title="Underground music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underground_music">underground music</a> scene was such that bands began to move to Seattle and approximate the look and sound of the original grunge bands. Mudhoney's Steve Turner said, "It was really bad. Pretend bands were popping up here, things weren't coming from where we were coming from." As a reaction, many grunge bands diversified their sound, with Nirvana and Tad in particular creating more melodic songs. Dawn Anderson of the Seattle fanzine Backlash recalled that by 1990 many locals had tired of the hype surrounding the Seattle scene and hoped that media exposure had dissipated.</p>
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<span id="Mainstream_success" class="mw-headline">Mainstream success</span>
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<a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(band)">Nirvana</a> performing at the 1992 <a class="mw-redirect" title="MTV Video Music Awards" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MTV_Video_Music_Awards">MTV Video Music Awards</a>.</div>
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<p>Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical mainstream in the late 1980s. Soundgarden was the first grunge band to sign to a major label when they joined the roster of <a title="A&amp;M Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%26M_Records">A&amp;M Records</a> in 1989. Soundgarden, along with other major label signings <a title="Alice in Chains" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_in_Chains">Alice in Chains</a> and <a title="Screaming Trees" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screaming_Trees">Screaming Trees</a>, performed "okay" with their initial major label releases, according to Jack Endino. <a title="Nirvana (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(band)">Nirvana</a>, originally from <a title="Aberdeen, Washington" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen,_Washington">Aberdeen, Washington</a>, was also courted by major labels, finally signing with <a title="Geffen Records" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geffen_Records">Geffen Records</a> in 1990. In September 1991, the band released its major label debut, <i><a title="Nevermind" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevermind">Nevermind</a></i>. The album was at best hoped to be a minor success on par with Sonic Youth's <i><a title="Goo (album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goo_(album)">Goo</a></i>, which Geffen had released a year earlier. It was the release of the album's first single "<a title="Smells Like Teen Spirit" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smells_Like_Teen_Spirit">Smells Like Teen Spirit</a>" that "marked the instigation of the grunge music phenomenon". Due to constant airplay of the song's music video on <a title="MTV" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MTV">MTV</a>, <i>Nevermind</i> was selling 400,000 copies a week by Christmas 1991. In January 1992, <i>Nevermind</i> replaced <a title="Pop music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop_music">pop</a> superstar <a title="Michael Jackson" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jackson">Michael Jackson</a>'s <i><a title="Dangerous (Michael Jackson album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_(Michael_Jackson_album)">Dangerous</a></i> at number one on the <a title="Billboard 200" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billboard_200"><i>Billboard</i> 200</a>.</p>
<p>The success of <i>Nevermind</i> surprised the music industry. <i>Nevermind</i> not only popularized grunge, but also established "the cultural and commercial viability of alternative rock in general." Michael Azerrad asserted that <i>Nevermind</i> symbolized "a sea-change in rock music" in which the <a title="Glam metal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glam_metal">glam metal</a> that had dominated rock music at that time fell out of favor in the face of music that was perceived as authentic and culturally relevant. Grunge made it possible for genres thought to be of a niche audience, no matter how radical, to prove their marketability and be co-opted by the mainstream, cementing the formation of an individualist, fragmented culture. Other grunge bands subsequently replicated Nirvana's success. <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Jam">Pearl Jam</a>, which featured former <a title="Mother Love Bone" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Love_Bone">Mother Love Bone</a> members <a title="Jeff Ament" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Ament">Jeff Ament</a> and <a title="Stone Gossard" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Gossard">Stone Gossard</a>, had released its debut album <i><a title="Ten (Pearl Jam album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_(Pearl_Jam_album)">Ten</a></i> in August 1991, a month before <i>Nevermind</i>, but album sales only picked up a year later. By the second half of 1992 <i>Ten</i> had become a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the <i>Billboard</i> charts.</p>
<p>Soundgarden's album <i><a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badmotorfinger">Badmotorfinger</a></i> and Alice in Chains' <i><a title="Dirt (Alice in Chains album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirt_(Alice_in_Chains_album)">Dirt</a></i>, along with the <i><a title="Temple of the Dog" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Dog">Temple of the Dog</a></i> album collaboration featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, were also among the 100 top selling albums of 1992. The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted <i>Rolling Stone</i> to nickname Seattle "the new <a title="Liverpool" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool">Liverpool</a>". Major record labels signed most of the prominent grunge bands in Seattle, while a second influx of bands moved to the city in hopes of success. The grunge scene was the backdrop in the 1992 <a title="Cameron Crowe" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cameron_Crowe">Cameron Crowe</a> film <i><a title="Singles (1992 film)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singles_(1992_film)">Singles</a></i>. There were several small roles, performances, and cameos in the film by popular Seattle grunge bands including Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and Alice in Chains. Filmed in and around Seattle in 1991, the film was not released until 1992 during the height of grunge popularity.</p>
<p>The popularity of grunge resulted in a large interest in the Seattle music scene's perceived cultural traits. While the Seattle music scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s in actuality consisted of various styles and genres of music, its representation in the media "served to depict Seattle as a music 'community' in which the focus was upon the ongoing exploration of one musical idiom, namely grunge". The fashion industry marketed "grunge fashion" to consumers, charging premium prices for items such as knit ski hats. Critics asserted that advertising was co-opting elements of grunge and turning it into a fad. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entertainment_Weekly">Entertainment Weekly</a></i> commented in a 1993 article, "There hasn't been this kind of exploitation of a subculture since the media discovered hippies in the '60s". The <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times">New York Times</a></i> compared the "grunging of America" to the mass-marketing of <a title="Punk rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punk_rock">punk rock</a>, <a title="Disco" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disco">disco</a>, and <a title="Hip hop music" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_hop_music">hip hop</a> in previous years. Ironically the <i>New York Times</i> was tricked into printing a fake list of slang terms that were supposedly used in the grunge scene; often referred to as the <a title="Grunge speak" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grunge_speak">grunge speak</a> hoax. This media hype surrounding grunge was documented in the 1996 documentary <i><a title="Hype!" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hype!">Hype!</a></i>
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<p>A backlash against grunge began to develop in Seattle; in late 1992 Jonathan Poneman said that in the city, "All things grunge are treated with the utmost cynicism and amusement [. . .] Because the whole thing is a fabricated movement and always has been." Many grunge artists were uncomfortable with their success and the resulting attention it brought. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain told Michael Azerrad, "Famous is the last thing I wanted to be." Pearl Jam also felt the burden of success, with much of the attention falling on frontman <a title="Eddie Vedder" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Vedder">Eddie Vedder</a>.</p>
<p>Nirvana's follow-up album <i><a title="In Utero (album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_Utero_(album)">In Utero</a></i> (1993) was an intentionally abrasive album that Nirvana bassist <a title="Krist Novoselic" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krist_Novoselic">Krist Novoselic</a> described as a "wild aggressive sound, a true alternative record" Nevertheless, upon its release in September 1993 <i>In Utero</i> topped the <i>Billboard</i> charts. Pearl Jam also continued to perform well commercially with its second album, <i><a title="Vs. (Pearl Jam album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vs._(Pearl_Jam_album)">Vs.</a></i> (1993). The album sold a record 950,378 copies in its first week of release, topped the <i>Billboard</i> charts, and outperformed all other entries in the top ten that week combined.</p>
<p>During this period, acts with a "Grunge sound" that were not from Seattle were often panned by critics, who accused them of being copycat bands. <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Temple_Pilots">Stone Temple Pilots</a> in particular fell victim to this. In a January 1994 <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone">Rolling Stone</a></i> poll, <a title="Stone Temple Pilots" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Temple_Pilots">Stone Temple Pilots</a> was simultaneously voted Best New Band by <i>Rolling Stone</i>'s readers and Worst New Band by the magazine's music critics, highlighting the disparity between critics and fans.</p>
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<span id="Decline_of_mainstream_popularity" class="mw-headline">Decline of mainstream popularity</span>
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<p>A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the latter half of the 1990s, grunge was supplanted by <a title="Post-grunge" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-grunge">post-grunge</a>, which remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century. Post-grunge bands such as <a title="Candlebox" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlebox">Candlebox</a> and <a title="Bush (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bush_(band)">Bush</a> emerged soon after grunge's breakthrough. These artists lacked the underground roots of grunge and were largely influenced by what grunge had become, namely "a wildly popular form of inward-looking, serious-minded hard rock". Post-grunge was a more commercially viable genre that tempered the distorted guitars of grunge with polished, radio-ready production.</p>
<p>Conversely, another alternative rock genre, <a title="Britpop" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Britpop">Britpop</a>, emerged in part as a reaction against the dominance of grunge in the United Kingdom. In contrast to the dourness of grunge, Britpop was defined by "youthful exuberance and desire for recognition". Britpop artists were vocal about their disdain for grunge. In a 1993 <i><a title="NME" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NME">NME</a></i> interview, <a title="Damon Albarn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damon_Albarn">Damon Albarn</a> of Britpop band <a title="Blur (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blur_(band)">Blur</a> agreed with interviewer <a title="John Harris (critic)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Harris_(critic)">John Harris</a>' assertion that Blur was an "anti-grunge band", and said, "Well, that's good. If punk was about getting rid of hippies, then I'm getting rid of grunge". <a title="Noel Gallagher" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noel_Gallagher">Noel Gallagher</a> of <a title="Oasis (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oasis_(band)">Oasis</a>, while a fan of Nirvana, wrote music that refuted the pessimistic nature of grunge. Gallagher noted in 2006 that the 1994 Oasis single "<a title="Live Forever" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Live_Forever">Live Forever</a>" "was written in the middle of grunge and all that, and I remember Nirvana had a tune called 'I Hate Myself and I Want to Die,' and I was like...'Well, I'm not fucking having that.' As much as I fucking like him [Cobain] and all that shit, I'm not having that. I can't have people like that coming over here, on <a title="Heroin" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin">smack</a>, fucking saying that they hate themselves and they wanna die. That's fucking rubbish."</p>
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<a title="Soundgarden" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundgarden">Soundgarden</a> <a title="Badmotorfinger" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badmotorfinger">Badmotorfinger</a> logo in concert, 2011.</div>
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<p>During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Kurt Cobain, labeled by <i>Time</i> as "the <a title="John Lennon" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lennon">John Lennon</a> of the swinging Northwest", appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin. Rumors surfaced in early 1994 that Cobain suffered a drug overdose and that Nirvana was breaking up. On April 8, 1994, Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home from an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound; Nirvana summarily disbanded. That same year Pearl Jam canceled its summer tour in protest of what it regarded as ticket vendor <a title="Ticketmaster" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ticketmaster">Ticketmaster</a>'s unfair business practices. Pearl Jam then began a boycott of the company; however, Pearl Jam's initiative to play only at non-Ticketmaster venues effectively, with a few exceptions, prevented the band from playing shows in the United States for the next three years. In 1996 Alice in Chains gave their final performances with their ailing estranged lead singer, <a title="Layne Staley" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Layne_Staley">Layne Staley</a>, who subsequently died from an overdose of cocaine and heroin in 2002. That same year Soundgarden and Screaming Trees released their final studio albums of the 1990s, <i><a title="Down on the Upside" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_on_the_Upside">Down on the Upside</a></i> and <i><a title="Dust (Screaming Trees album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_(Screaming_Trees_album)">Dust</a></i>, respectively.</p>
<h3>
<span id="21st_century" class="mw-headline">21st century</span>
</h3>
<p>Some grunge bands have continued recording and touring with success, including, most significantly, <a title="Pearl Jam" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Jam">Pearl Jam</a>. While in 2006 <i>Rolling Stone</i> writer Brian Hiatt described Pearl Jam as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame", he noted the band developed a loyal concert following akin to that of the <a title="Grateful Dead" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grateful_Dead">Grateful Dead</a>. Despite Nirvana's demise, the band has continued to be successful posthumously. Due to the high sales for Kurt Cobain's <i><a title="Journals (Cobain)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journals_(Cobain)">Journals</a></i> and the band's best-of compilation <i><a title="Nirvana (Nirvana album)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(Nirvana_album)">Nirvana</a></i> upon their releases in 2002, <i>The New York Times</i> argued Nirvana "are having more success now than at any point since Mr. Cobain's suicide in 1994." The Nirvana song "<a title="You Know You're Right" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_Know_You%27re_Right">You Know You're Right</a>" reached #1 on the <a class="mw-redirect" title="Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_Mainstream_Rock_Tracks">Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks</a> chart. In the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, <i><a title="The Seattle Times" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Seattle_Times">The Seattle Times</a></i> made note of grunge-influenced groups emerging in Seattle, including Post Stardom Depression, The Valley, and The Weapons. Similarly, <i><a title="The Guardian" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian">The Guardian</a></i> reported of grunge-influenced groups from <a title="Yorkshire and the Humber" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yorkshire_and_the_Humber">Yorkshire</a>, including <a title="Dinosaur Pile-Up" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_Pile-Up">Dinosaur Pile-Up</a>, The Old Romantic Killer Band, The Tempus, Above Them, <a title="Pulled Apart by Horses" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulled_Apart_by_Horses">Pulled Apart by Horses</a>, and <a title="Wonderswan (band)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonderswan_(band)">Wonderswan</a>. Also, in 2003, the <i>New York Times</i> noted a resurgence in grunge fashion.</p>
<p>Alice In Chains reformed for a handful of reunion dates in 2005 with several different vocalists filing in for the late Layne Staley, eventually aligning with <a class="mw-redirect" title="William Duvall" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Duvall">William Duvall</a> and released their first record in 15 years in 2009 <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="Black Gives Way To Blue" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Gives_Way_To_Blue">Black Gives Way To Blue</a></i> a return to grunge form with a <a title="Doom metal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doom_metal">doom metal</a> sensibility and cementing a new era without their original singer, while releasing another record in 2013 <i><a title="The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Devil_Put_Dinosaurs_Here">The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here</a></i>, reaching #2 on the <i>Billboard</i> 200 and displaying more <a title="Stoner rock" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoner_rock">stoner rock</a> and <a title="Sludge metal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sludge_metal">sludge metal</a> influence. Soundgarden re-formed in 2010 and released <i><a title="King Animal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Animal">King Animal</a></i> two years later which reached the top five of the national albums charts in Denmark, New Zealand, and the United States.</p>
<h2>
<span id="Prominent_music_acts" class="mw-headline">Prominent music acts</span>
</h2>
<p>See Figure 4.1. (Bands labelled as 'grunge' by respondents).</p>
<dl>
<dt>Seattle area</dt>
</dl>
<h2>
<span id="See_also" class="mw-headline">See also</span>
</h2>
<ul>
<li>
<a title="Post-grunge" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-grunge">Post-grunge</a>
</li>
<li>
<a title="Alternative metal" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_metal">Alternative metal</a>
</li>
<li>
<a title="List of American grunge bands" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_American_grunge_bands">List of American grunge bands</a>
</li>
<li>
<a title="List of grunge albums" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_grunge_albums">List of grunge albums</a>
</li>
<li>
<a title="Riot grrrl" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riot_grrrl">Riot grrrl</a>
</li>
</ul>
<h2>
<span id="Notes" class="mw-headline">Notes</span>
</h2>
<div style="-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;" class="reflist columns references-column-count references-column-count-2">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-allmusic_grunge-1">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_grunge_1-5"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.allmusic.com/style/grunge-ma0000002626" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Grunge"</a>. <a class="mw-redirect" title="Allmusic" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allmusic">Allmusic</a>. <a title="Rovi Corporation" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rovi_Corporation">Rovi Corporation</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 24 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Grunge&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fstyle%2Fgrunge-ma0000002626&amp;rft.jtitle=%27%27Allmusic%27%27&amp;rft.pub=Rovi+Corporation&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Ramball, Paul (April 1, 1978). "he American Midwest: Akron and Cleveland--Exploring alternative hives of industry in Akron, City of Rubber, and Cleveland, City of Steel,". <i>NME</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=he+American+Midwest%3A+Akron+and+Cleveland--Exploring+alternative+hives+of+industry+in+Akron%2C+City+of+Rubber%2C+and+Cleveland%2C+City+of+Steel%2C&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rft.aulast=Ramball&amp;rft.au=Ramball%2C+Paul&amp;rft.date=April+1%2C+1978&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=NME&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="error citation-comment" style="display:none;font-size:100%"><code>|accessdate=</code> requires <code>|url=</code> (<a title="Help:CS1 errors" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#accessdate_missing_url">help</a>)</span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Humphrey, Clark. <i>Loser: The Real Seattle Music Story</i>. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1929069243">ISBN 1-929069-24-3</a>, p. 63.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-4">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a title="Everett True" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everett_True">True, Everett</a> (20 January 2001). <a href="http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/no-end-in-sight/Content?oid=6267" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"No End in Sight: Mudhoney Is Alive and Well"</a>. <i><a title="The Stranger (newspaper)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stranger_(newspaper)">The Stranger</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 11 September 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=No+End+in+Sight%3A+Mudhoney+Is+Alive+and+Well&amp;rft.aufirst=Everett&amp;rft.aulast=True&amp;rft.au=True%2C+Everett&amp;rft.date=20+January+2001&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thestranger.com%2Fseattle%2Fno-end-in-sight%2FContent%3Foid%3D6267&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Stranger&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Clinton Heylin" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinton_Heylin">Heylin, Clinton</a>. <i>Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge</i>. Conongate, 2007. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1841958794">ISBN 1-84195-879-4</a>, p. 606.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Hype-6">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-5"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-6"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hype_6-7"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Pray, D., Helvey-Pray Productions (1996). <i><a title="Hype!" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hype!">Hype!</a></i> Republic Pictures.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Ragland, Cathy (19 November 1993). <a href="http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19931119&amp;slug=1732607" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Powerful, Melodic Gorilla Rises Above A Sea Of Grunge"</a>. <i>The Seattle Times</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Powerful%2C+Melodic+Gorilla+Rises+Above+A+Sea+Of+Grunge&amp;rft.aufirst=Cathy&amp;rft.aulast=Ragland&amp;rft.au=Ragland%2C+Cathy&amp;rft.date=19+November+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.seattletimes.nwsource.com%2Farchive%2F%3Fdate%3D19931119%26slug%3D1732607&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Seattle+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-success_NYT-8">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-1"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-2"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-3"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-4"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-success_NYT_8-5"></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Marin, Rick. "Grunge: A Success Story". <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times">The New York Times</a></i>. 15 November 1992.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-9">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Freind, Bill (29 January 2002). <a href="http://archive.is/5PhI" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Grunge"</a>. <i>St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture</i>. Archived from <a href="http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100545/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 28 Jun 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 September 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.au=Freind%2C+Bill&amp;rft.aulast=Freind%2C+Bill&amp;rft.btitle=Grunge&amp;rft.date=29+January+2002&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffindarticles.com%2Fp%2Farticles%2Fmi_g1epc%2Fis_tov%2Fai_2419100545%2F&amp;rft.pub=%27%27St.+James+Encyclopedia+of+Pop+Culture%27%27&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-10">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Marsh, Dave. "LIVE THROUGH THIS....". Rock &amp; Rap Archives 124.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-11">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Aston, Martin. "Freak Scene". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 12.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-12">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Mick Wall" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mick_Wall">Wall, Mick</a>. "Northwest Passage". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 9.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-13">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wall, Mick. "Northwest Passage". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 8.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Everley, Dave. "Daydream Nation". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 39.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-15">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Fricke, David. "Kurt Cobain: The Rolling Stone Interview". <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone">Rolling Stone</a></i>. 27 January 1994.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><i><a title="Guitar World" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitar_World">Guitar World</a></i> (1998). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=4R0xtoz_gQ8C&amp;printsec=frontcover" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><i>Guitar World Presents Nirvana and the Grunge Revolution</i></a>. Milwaukee: <a title="Hal Leonard Corporation" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hal_Leonard_Corporation">Hal Leonard Corporation</a>. pp.&nbsp;<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=4R0xtoz_gQ8C&amp;pg=178&amp;dq=%22Beatles+and+Abba+just+as+much+as+we+liked+Flipper+and+Black+Flag%22%22You+listen+to+any+Pixies+record+and+it's+all+over+there.+Or+even+Black+Sabbath's%22%22War%20Pigs%22%22it's+there:+the+power+of+the+dynamic.+We+just+sort+of+abused+it+with+pop+songs+and+got+sick+with+it.%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">170-1</a>. <a title="International Standard Book Number" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a title="Special:BookSources/0-79359006-X" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-79359006-X">0-79359006-X</a>. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780793590063">ISBN 978-0-79359006-3</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.au=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.aulast=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.btitle=Guitar+World+Presents+Nirvana+and+the+Grunge+Revolution&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D4R0xtoz_gQ8C%26printsec%3Dfrontcover&amp;rft.isbn=0-79359006-X&amp;rft.pages=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D4R0xtoz_gQ8C%26pg%3D178%26dq%3D%2522Beatles%2Band%2BAbba%2Bjust%2Bas%2Bmuch%2Bas%2Bwe%2Bliked%2BFlipper%2Band%2BBlack%2BFlag%2522%2522You%2Blisten%2Bto%2Bany%2BPixies%2Brecord%2Band%2Bit%27s%2Ball%2Bover%2Bthere.%2BOr%2Beven%2BBlack%2BSabbath%27s%2522%2522War%2520Pigs%2522%2522it%27s%2Bthere%3A%2Bthe%2Bpower%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bdynamic.%2BWe%2Bjust%2Bsort%2Bof%2Babused%2Bit%2Bwith%2Bpop%2Bsongs%2Band%2Bgot%2Bsick%2Bwith%2Bit.%2522+170-1.&amp;rft.place=Milwaukee&amp;rft.pub=Hal+Leonard+Corporation&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-17">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Heylin, p. 601.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-18">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Carden, Andrew. "Black Sabbath". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 34.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-19">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Bob Gulla" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Gulla">Gulla, Bob</a>, <i>The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Rock History: The grunge and post-grunge years, 1991-2005</i>, <a title="Greenwood Publishing Group" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwood_Publishing_Group">Greenwood Press</a>, 2006, p. 231.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-20">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Brannigan, Paul. "Outshined". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 102.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-21">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><i>Guitar World</i> (1998). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=4R0xtoz_gQ8C&amp;pg=PT8&amp;dq=%22Seattle.+Heign.+The.+Rise.+and.+Fall.+of.+Seattle.+Grunge.+By+Jon+Wiederhorn%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Seattle Reign. The Rise and Fall of Seattle Grunge. By Jon Wiederhorn (pp. 1-12)"</a>. "<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=4R0xtoz_gQ8C&amp;pg=PT10&amp;dq=%22So+what+exactly+is+grunge?%22%22Picture+a+supergroup+made+up+of+Creedence+Clearwater+Revival,+Black+Sabbath+and+the+Stooges,+and+you're+pretty+close%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Quote</a>."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.au=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.aulast=%27%27Guitar+World%27%27&amp;rft.btitle=Seattle+Reign.+The+Rise+and+Fall+of+Seattle+Grunge.+By+Jon+Wiederhorn+%28pp.+1-12%29&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D4R0xtoz_gQ8C%26pg%3DPT8%26dq%3D%2522Seattle.%2BHeign.%2BThe.%2BRise.%2Band.%2BFall.%2Bof.%2BSeattle.%2BGrunge.%2BBy%2BJon%2BWiederhorn%2522&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Azerrad419-22">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad419_22-0"></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad419_22-1"></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="Michael Azerrad" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Azerrad">Azerrad, Michael</a>. <i><a title="Our Band Could Be Your Life" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Band_Could_Be_Your_Life">Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981-1991</a></i>. Boston: <a title="Little, Brown and Company" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little,_Brown_and_Company">Little, Brown and Company</a>, 2001. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0316787531">ISBN 0-316-78753-1</a>, p. 419.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-23">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 418.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-24">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 439.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">McNair, James. "<i>Rust Never Sleeps</i> - Neil Young". <i>Q: Nirvana and the Story of Grunge</i>. December 2005. p. 36.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ew_rk_26-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a href="http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,308818,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"This is the most important band in America?"</a>. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entertainment_Weekly">Entertainment Weekly</a></i>. 3 December 1993<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 15 June 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=This+is+the+most+important+band+in+America%3F&amp;rft.date=3+December+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ew.com%2Few%2Farticle%2F0%2C%2C308818%2C00.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Azerrad420-27">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Azerrad420_27-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 420.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-28">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 436&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;37.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 421&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;22.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 411.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, James. <i>Selling Seattle: Representing Contemporary Urban America</i>. Wallflower, 2004. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1903364965">ISBN 1-903364-96-5</a>. pp. 128&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;29.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 449.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), p. 450.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wice, Nathaniel. "How Nirvana Made It". <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="Spin magazine" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_magazine">Spin</a></i>. April 1992.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 120</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"The <i>Billboard</i> 200". <i><a title="Billboard (magazine)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billboard_(magazine)">Billboard</a></i>. <a title="Prometheus Global Media" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus_Global_Media">Prometheus Global Media</a>. 11 January 1992.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Olsen, Eric (9 April 2004). <a href="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4652653/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"10 years later, Cobain lives on in his music"</a>. <a title="MSNBC" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSNBC">MSNBC.com</a>. <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20070828075858/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4652653/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Archived</a> from the original on 28 August 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 July 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.aulast=Olsen%2C+Eric&amp;rft.au=Olsen%2C+Eric&amp;rft.btitle=10+years+later%2C+Cobain+lives+on+in+his+music&amp;rft.date=9+April+2004&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.msnbc.msn.com%2Fid%2F4652653%2F&amp;rft.pub=MSNBC.com&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (1994), pp. 229-30.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Swanson, Carl (3 February 2013). <a href="http://nymag.com/arts/art/features/1993-new-museum-exhibit/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Are We Still Living in 1993?"</a>. <i><a class="mw-redirect" title="New York Magazine" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Magazine">New York Magazine</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 26 February 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Are+We+Still+Living+in+1993%3F&amp;rft.aufirst=Carl&amp;rft.aulast=Swanson&amp;rft.au=Swanson%2C+Carl&amp;rft.date=3+February+2013&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnymag.com%2Farts%2Fart%2Ffeatures%2F1993-new-museum-exhibit%2F&amp;rft.jtitle=New+York+Magazine&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Pearlman, Nina. "Black Days". <i><a title="Guitar World" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitar_World">Guitar World</a></i>. December 2002.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 136.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad (2001), pp. 452&acirc;&euro;&ldquo;53.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Lyons, p. 122.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Kobel, Peter (2 April 1993). <a href="http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,306055,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Smells Like Big Bucks"</a>. <i><a title="Entertainment Weekly" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entertainment_Weekly">Entertainment Weekly</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 25 July 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Smells+Like+Big+Bucks&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft.au=Kobel%2C+Peter&amp;rft.aulast=Kobel&amp;rft.date=2+April+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ew.com%2Few%2Farticle%2F0%2C%2C306055%2C00.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Azerrad, Michael. <i>Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana</i>. Doubleday, 1994. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0385471998">ISBN 0-385-47199-8</a>, p. 254.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-crowe_46-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a title="Cameron Crowe" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cameron_Crowe">Crowe, Cameron</a> (28 October 1993). <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20070619084803/http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/10560431/five_against_the_world" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Five Against the World"</a>. <i><a title="Rolling Stone" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone">Rolling Stone</a></i>. Archived from <a href="http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/10560431/five_against_the_world" class="external text" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 19 June 2007<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 23 June 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Five+Against+the+World&amp;rft.au=Crowe%2C+Cameron&amp;rft.aufirst=Cameron&amp;rft.aulast=Crowe&amp;rft.date=28+October+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rollingstone.com%2Fnews%2Fstory%2F10560431%2Ffive_against_the_world&amp;rft.jtitle=Rolling+Stone&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">DeRogatis, Jim. <i>Milk It!: Collected Musings on the Alternative Music Explosion of the 90s</i>. Cambridge: Da Capo, 2003. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0306812711">ISBN 0-306-81271-1</a>, p. 18.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news"><a href="http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,308282,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"In Numero Uno"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i>. 8 October 1993<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 September 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=In+Numero+Uno&amp;rft.date=8+October+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ew.com%2Few%2Farticle%2F0%2C%2C308282%2C00.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Hajari, Nisid (19 November 1993). <a href="http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,308749,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Pearl's Jam"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 29 August 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Pearl%27s+Jam&amp;rft.aufirst=Nisid&amp;rft.au=Hajari%2C+Nisid&amp;rft.aulast=Hajari&amp;rft.date=19+November+1993&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ew.com%2Few%2Farticle%2F0%2C%2C308749%2C00.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.allmusic.com/style/britpop-ma0000002480" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Britpop"</a>. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Britpop&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fstyle%2Fbritpop-ma0000002480&amp;rft.jtitle=%27%27Allmusic%27%27&amp;rft.pub=Rovi+Corporation&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a title="John Harris (critic)" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Harris_(critic)">Harris, John</a>. "A shite sports car and a punk reincarnation". <i><a title="NME" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NME">NME</a></i>. 10 April 1993.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">"Lock the Door". <i>Stop the Clocks</i> [bonus DVD]. Columbia, 2006.</span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Gordinier, Jeff (28 October 1994). <a href="http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,304203,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"The Brawls in Their Courts"</a>. <i>Entertainment Weekly</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 8 September 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=The+Brawls+in+Their+Courts&amp;rft.au=Gordinier%2C+Jeff&amp;rft.aulast=Gordinier%2C+Jeff&amp;rft.date=28+October+1994&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ew.com%2Few%2Farticle%2F0%2C%2C304203%2C00.html&amp;rft.jtitle=Entertainment+Weekly&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
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<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">DeRogatis, p. 65.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-60">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-60">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Simpson, Dave (30 January 2009). <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2009/jan/30/leeds-grunge-scene" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Just Don't Call It Grunge: Leeds' New Music Scene"</a>. <i><a title="The Guardian" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian">The Guardian</a></i> (London)<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 17 February 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Just+Don%27t+Call+It+Grunge%3A+Leeds%27+New+Music+Scene&amp;rft.aulast=Simpson%2C+Dave&amp;rft.au=Simpson%2C+Dave&amp;rft.date=30+January+2009&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.guardian.co.uk%2Fmusic%2F2009%2Fjan%2F30%2Fleeds-grunge-scene&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-61">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">La Ferla, Ruth (30 September 2003). <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/30/nyregion/front-row.html?src=pm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"FRONT ROW"</a>. <i><a title="The New York Times" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times">The New York Times</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 19 August 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=FRONT+ROW&amp;rft.au=La+Ferla%2C+Ruth&amp;rft.aulast=La+Ferla%2C+Ruth&amp;rft.date=30+September+2003&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2003%2F09%2F30%2Fnyregion%2Ffront-row.html%3Fsrc%3Dpm&amp;rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-62">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.billboard.com/artist/278597/alice-chains/chart?f=305" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Alice In Chains &acirc;&euro;&ldquo; Chart history: <i>Billboard</i> 200"</a>. <i>Billboard</i>. Prometheus Global Media<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 1 October 2013</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Alice+In+Chains+%E2%80%93+Chart+history%3A+%27%27Billboard%27%27+200&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.billboard.com%2Fartist%2F278597%2Falice-chains%2Fchart%3Ff%3D305&amp;rft.jtitle=Billboard&amp;rft.pub=Prometheus+Global+Media&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-63">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="http://acharts.us/album/74435" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Soundgarden - <i>King Animal</i></a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-64">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Strong, Catherine (2011). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=qUhokID7qXIC&amp;printsec=frontcover" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><i>Grunge: Music and Memory</i></a>. <a title="Farnham" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farnham">Farnham</a>: <a title="Ashgate Publishing" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashgate_Publishing">Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.</a> p.&nbsp;<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=qUhokID7qXIC&amp;pg=PA73&amp;dq=%22Bands+labelled+as+'grunge'+by+respondents%22" class="external text" rel="nofollow">73</a>. <a title="International Standard Book Number" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a title="Special:BookSources/1-40942377-8" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-40942377-8">1-40942377-8</a>. <a class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn" href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781409423775">ISBN 978-1-40942377-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.aufirst=Catherine&amp;rft.aulast=Strong&amp;rft.au=Strong%2C+Catherine&amp;rft.btitle=Grunge%3A+Music+and+Memory&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DqUhokID7qXIC%26printsec%3Dfrontcover&amp;rft.isbn=1-40942377-8&amp;rft.pages=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DqUhokID7qXIC%26pg%3DPA73%26dq%3D%2522Bands%2Blabelled%2Bas%2B%27grunge%27%2Bby%2Brespondents%2522+73&amp;rft.place=Farnham&amp;rft.pub=Ashgate+Publishing%2C+Ltd.&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook"><span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-65">
<span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">MacDonald, Patrick (31 July 1992). <a href="http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19920731&amp;slug=1505014" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Willard Is Saying 'Rats!' To Seattle's Grunge Profusion"</a>. <i>The Seattle Times</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AGrunge&amp;rft.atitle=Willard+Is+Saying+%27Rats%21%27+To+Seattle%27s+Grunge+Profusion&amp;rft.aufirst=Patrick&amp;rft.aulast=MacDonald&amp;rft.au=MacDonald%2C+Patrick&amp;rft.date=31+July+1992&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.seattletimes.nwsource.com%2Farchive%2F%3Fdate%3D19920731%26slug%3D1505014&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Seattle+Times&amp;rft_val_fmt=in